Kidney Cancer

Kidney cancer is also known as renal cancer. It occurs when the cells grow and divide uncontrollably rather than in an orderly way. As a result, the malignant cells form lumps known as tumors. These tumors can invade and damage nearby tissues and organs, as well as spread (metastasize) to other regions of the body. Almost all kidney tumors begin in the lining of the kidney's small tubes. Renal cell carcinoma is the medical term for this form of kidney cancer.

Kidney cancer is among the 10 most common cancers in both men and women. Overall, the lifetime risk for developing kidney cancer in men is about 1 in 46 (2.02%). The lifetime risk for women is about 1 in 80 (1.03%).

The good news is that most kidney tumors are discovered before they spread to other organs. And tumors that are detected early are easier to treat appropriately. These tumors, however, can grow quite large before being detected. There is no one treatment for kidney cancer because it depends on the individual's overall health and the stage and type of cancer. Treatment options include surgery, immunotherapy, and chemotherapy.


There are various types of kidney cancer, such as

  • Renal cell carcinoma
  • Transitional cell cancer
  • Renal sarcoma,
  • Wilms tumor


Many patients might not have any early indications of kidney cancer. Symptoms may appear as cancer grows in size. One may be experiencing one or more of the following kidney cancer symptoms:

Other signs of kidney cancer that might indicate metastasis are:

When To See A Doctor?

Consult your doctor immediately if you observe any persisting changes while passing urine, back pain that won't go quickly, swollen ankles, etc. These symptoms need to be addressed as soon as possible.


The cause of kidney cancer is unknown, old age is one the main risk factors.

Risk Factors

Certain risk factors may increase the chance of developing this disease. They include:


Cigarette smoking puts individuals at a greater risk of developing kidney cancer. Furthermore, the longer a person smokes, the higher the risk.


Obesity : Obesity raises the risk of kidney cancer. The more a person's weight, the greater the risk.

High Blood Pressure

High Blood Pressure : Hypertension has been linked to an increased risk of kidney cancer.

Family History

A person with a family history of kidney cancer may be more prone to get this illness.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation Therapy: Women who have received radiation therapy for gynecological related cancer may have a slightly higher chance of acquiring kidney cancer.

Gene Changes

Genes contain instructions for the function of a cell. Specific genetic mutations can increase the likelihood of developing kidney cancer.

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

Tuberous sclerosis is a condition that causes seizures, intellectual disabilities, and tumor growth in several organs.

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

People with this genetic condition are more likely to get kidney cancer. This condition results in noncancerous tumors in your blood vessels, most commonly in your eyes and brain.


Complications from kidney cancer may include:

  • Local tumor spread (metastasis) with increased discomfort.
  • Kidney failure


Improving your health may help lower the chance of kidney cancer. To reduce the risk, consider the following:

Quit smoking: There are several methods for quitting smoking, including support groups and nicotine replacement products. Please inform your doctor that you wish to stop and explore the choices with them.

Maintain a Healthy Weight:

  • Make an effort to keep your weight in check.
  • Reduce your daily calorie intake and be physically active if you are overweight or obese.
  • Consult with your doctor about other healthy weight-loss options.

Control High Blood Pressure

If your blood pressure is high, you can discuss ways to decrease it. Exercise, weight loss, and dietary modifications can be beneficial.


If you have kidney cancer symptoms, the doctor will take a complete medical history and physical examination. Doctors may also prescribe particular tests to assist in the diagnosis and evaluation of cancer. These tests may involve:


A urine sample is tested to check if there is blood in the urine. Even small amounts of blood, invisible to the human eye, can be detected in urine tests.

Blood tests

Blood tests: These tests count the different types of blood cells in your body and examine extra electrolytes. A blood test can tell if you have anemia or if your kidney function is affected (by looking at the creatinine).

CT scan

CT scan: This is a type of X-ray where a computer produces a sequence of pictures, or slices, of the inside of your body. This test is frequently performed using intravenous contrast (dye), and individuals with compromised renal function may be unable to accept the dye.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This test creates pictures of the inside of your body using a large magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer.


Ultrasound: This test creates pictures on a monitor using high-frequency sound waves transferred through bodily tissues. This test aids in detecting malignancies, which differ in density from healthy tissues.

Renal mass biopsy

Renal mass biopsy: A tiny needle is injected into the tumor during this treatment, and your tissue samples are extracted (biopsy).

Intravenous pyelogram

Intravenous pyelogram: A physician injects a specific dye into one of your veins during this procedure. The dye allows X-rays to see your kidneys more clearly. This test can assist the doctor in locating a tumor or blockage.


The stage and grade of the tumor, as well as your age and overall health, all influence kidney cancer treatment. They are as follows:


Surgery is the recommended treatment for most stages of kidney cancer. There are several surgical options to consider, including

  • Partial nephrectomy: The surgeon removes the tumor-containing part of the kidney.
  • Radical nephrectomy: The surgeon removes the whole kidney, some surrounding tissues, and a portion of the neighboring lymph nodes. When one kidney is removed, the remaining kidney is typically capable of carrying out the functions of both kidneys.


Cold and heat can sometimes kill cancerous cells. People who are not surgical candidates may benefit from cryoablation or radiofrequency ablation.


A needle is injected into the kidney tumor during this procedure. Cold gas is then used to freeze the cancer cells.

Radiofrequency ablation

A needle is inserted into the kidney tumor during radiofrequency ablation. After that, the cancer cells are eliminated by running an electrical current through them.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy is often used to reduce the signs of kidney cancer, such as pain.

Targeted drug therapy

This therapy blocks specific properties that allow cancer cells to grow. When surgery is not possible, targeted medication treatment is commonly used. In some situations, these drugs may be used following the surgery to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence.


Immunotherapy is the use of drugs to enhance your immune system. This allows the body to detect and eliminate cancer cells. Immunotherapy can be used alone or in conjunction with surgery.


Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is not a commonly used treatment for kidney cancer. However, it can benefit some patients only after immunotherapy and targeted medication treatment have been exhausted. Chemotherapy drugs are typically well tolerated and can be given orally or intravenously.

Do's and Don’ts

Consider these dos and don'ts when being treated for kidney cancer.

Eat a healthy diet, including fruits and vegetables.Smoke cigarettes
Watch your protein intake Consume too much salt
Monitor your phosphorus intake Have uncontrolled diabetes and BP
Maintain a healthy weight. Consume alcohol
Take precautions as advised by your doctor.Skip exercise

Precautions and self-care will help you fight the condition positively and improve your quality of life.

Care at Medicover Hospitals

At Medicover, we have the best team of oncologists, radiologists, and nephrologists who work together to deliver the best kidney cancer therapy. Our highly qualified staff uses cutting-edge medical equipment, diagnostic processes, and technologies to treat various cancer illnesses. We use a multidisciplinary approach to provide the best kidney treatment and strive for a speedy recovery from kidney cancer.