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High Blood Pressure

high-blood-pressure
By Medicover Hospitals / 17 Feb 2021
Home | symptoms | high-blood-pressure
  • When the heartbeats, it pumps blood throughout the body. The speed at which your heart pumps blood through your body is called your blood pressure. As the blood moves, it pushes on the sides of the veins. The quality of this push is your blood pressure. If your blood pressure is excessively high, it extra pressures your arteries and this can lead to strokes.
  • Article Context:

    1. What is high blood pressure?
    2. Causes
    3. Diagnosis
    4. When to visit a Doctor?
    5. Home Remedies
    6. FAQ's

    What is high blood pressure?

  • Hypertension, known as high blood pressure (HTN), means that the pressure in the supply arteries is higher than it should be. Another name for high blood pressure is hypertension. Hypertension is a pressure of 130/80 or higher that stays high after a while. Hypertension usually has no signs or side effects. That is why it is so dangerous. But if you have regular check-ups with your doctor and use the drug correctly, you can handle it.
  • As we all know, there are different blood pressures like normal blood pressure, low blood pressure, and high blood pressure. Each of them has different values, according to which they are treated and named.
    • If your blood pressure is 90/60 or less, then this situation is considered low blood pressure.
    • If your blood pressure is greater than 90/60 and less than 120/80, then your condition is considered healthy and ideal.
    • If your blood pressure is between 120/80 and 140/90, this condition is considered normal blood pressure.
    • If your blood pressure is 140/90 and above, then it is considered high blood pressure. In this condition, see your doctor immediately and start taking medications.

    Causes:

  • The main cause of high blood pressure is unknown. But many factors influence such as smoking, alcohol consumption, excessive sodium intake, lack of physical activity, stress, etc. Here we mention several causes of hypertension.
  • Smoking:

  • Smoking increases blood pressure, but the immediate rise in blood pressure is temporary. But tobacco contains chemicals that can damage the walls of the arteries and cause the arteries to narrow and increase heart disease and blood pressure.
  • Being overweight:

  • Blood pressure is more likely to increase in people who are overweight or obese. The blood needs more oxygen and nutrients supplied to the tissues, so the volume of blood flow increases and creates pressure on the arteries.
  • Lack of physical activity:

  • If you are physically inactive, you can gain weight and increase your blood pressure and increase your heart rate. With a higher heart rate, your heart must work hard for each contraction and vigorously force on your arteries. So stay active and do some exercises to help you shed the extra pounds and lower your risk of blood pressure.
  • Too much salt:

  • Consuming too much sodium increases blood pressure and also causes kidney problems. Try to eliminate sodium-containing foods like pickles or canned foods, nuts covered in salt, salted butter, cheese, etc. Consuming less or a limited amount of salt (sodium) lowers blood pressure. Not taking salt is also dangerous and causes low blood pressure, so limit your salt intake according to your blood pressure index or consult your doctor for advice.
  • Alcohol consumption:

  • Many results have shown that drinking alcohol is bad for your health, not just cancer or heart disease, your blood pressure rises too. Regular alcohol intake raises blood pressure and affects heart rate.
  • Stress:

  • When stress increases, your blood pressure also rises and leads to many other diseases. When some people are more stressed, they smoke and others drink alcohol, which causes an increase in heart rate and an increase in blood pressure. If you're overly stressed, try staying calm or doing meditation or walking for 30 minutes to calm your blood pressure.
  • Family history of high blood pressure:

  • Blood pressure is caused by heredity or genetics. Blood pressure is hereditary, nothing can be done to stop genetic inheritance.
  • Chronic kidney disease:

  • Blood pressure damages the tiny filtering units of the kidneys. As a result, the kidneys may stop filtering waste and excess fluid from the blood. Excess fluid in the blood vessels can build up and further increase blood pressure. Blood pressure can be a complication of chronic kidney disease. Your kidneys play an important role in keeping your blood pressure on a healthy scale. Diseased kidneys are less able to help adjust blood pressure and cause a rise in blood pressure.
  • Adrenal and thyroid disorders:

  • When the thyroid gland produces too much or less thyroid hormone and causes high blood pressure. A hormonal disorder can lead to blood pressure when the adrenal glands produce more of the hormone aldosterone, which increases sodium levels in the blood. The excessive release of hormones that respond to stress, heart rate, and blood pressure.
  • Sleep apnea:

  • Sleep apnea affects many of your body's complex systems and is linked to other serious conditions, such as an increase in blood pressure. While we sleep, our body's blood pressure drops. If you have sleep apnea, your blood pressure may not drop, causing your blood pressure to rise.
  • Diagnosis:

  • Using a device known as a sphygmomanometer, consisting of a stethoscope, cuff, dial, pump, and valve, blood pressure is most frequently measured. Blood pressure is recorded as two numbers: systolic and diastolic pressure.
  • Systolic blood pressure is the maximum pressure during a heartbeat when the heart sends blood throughout the body.
  • Diastolic blood pressure, when the heart is filled with blood, is the lowest pressure between heartbeats.
  • Blood test:

  • Blood tests may be needed to determine if you have secondary hypertension due to a serious or treatable health condition.5 Blood tests that may be ordered to aid in the diagnosis of hypertension include:
    • Electrolyte levels
    • Blood glucose
    • Thyroid function tests
    • Kidney function tests: blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels

    Urine tests:

  • Urinalysis can help determine if diabetes, kidney failure, or illegal drugs cause or contribute to high blood pressure.
  • Imaging Tests:

  • Blood pressure is closely related to heart and kidney function, and imaging tests can help in the diagnosis of hypertension and its associated causes and complications.
    • Electrocardiogram (EKG):

    • An EKG is a fairly simple and quick test that evaluates your heart's rhythm. Anomalies in the heart rhythm can cause high blood pressure. Also, hypertension can produce long-term changes that result in heart rhythm disturbances.
    • Ultrasound:

    • A test that is useful for evaluating the kidneys and blood vessels, an ultrasound may be necessary if your doctor concerned about certain aspects of blood flow. For example, if your doctor thinks that you may have an excessive narrowing in one or more of your blood vessels, this can be evaluated using ultrasound.
    • CT scan or MRI:

    • A test that is useful for evaluating the kidneys and blood vessels, an ultrasound may be necessary if your doctor concerned about certain aspects of blood flow. For example, if your doctor thinks that you may have an excessive narrowing in one or more of your blood vessels, this can be evaluated using ultrasound.
    • CT scan or MRI:

    • If your doctor suspects that a tumor is the cause of your high blood pressure, you may need an imaging test, such as a CT scan or MRI, usually to evaluate the kidneys or adrenal glands.

    When to visit a Doctor?

  • Although high blood pressure rarely causes symptoms, anyone experiencing a sudden, severe headache or nosebleed should have their blood pressure checked.
  • If a person experiences severe symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath or visual difficulty, they should call for emergency medical treatment as they may experience a hypertensive crisis.
  • Medicines to lower blood pressure can cause side effects like dizziness. If this side effect does not go away or affects a person's daily activities, talk to your GP.
  • Prevention:

    Eat healthy food:

  • To help control your blood pressure, you should restrict the amount of sodium (salt) you eat and increase the amount of potassium in your diet.
  • Exercise regularly:

  • You can keep a healthier weight and lower the blood pressure by doing exercise.
  • Have a healthy weight:

  • Being overweight or overweight increases the risk of hypertension. Maintaining a solid weight can help you control your hypertension and reduce your risk of other medical problems.
  • Avoid alcohol:

  • Drinking too much liquor can raise your blood pressure. It also includes extra calories, which can lead to weight gain.
  • No smoking:

  • Smoking cigarettes raises blood pressure and increases your risk of heart attack and stroke.
  • Cut the caffeine:

  • Caffeine can increase blood pressure, but the impact is temporary for infrequent users. People who regularly consume caffeine-containing beverages may experience a slight increase in blood pressure.
  • Lose weight:

  • If you are overweight, your blood pressure is also high, so try losing weight to control your blood pressure. If you're overweight or obese, it's not just blood pressure that causes sleep apnea, too.
  • Frequently Asked Questions:

  • In some cases, people with high blood pressure may have a throbbing feeling in the head or chest, feeling light-headed or dizzy, or other signs.
  • Anxiety does not cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic and temporary spikes in blood pressure.
  • Low-dose aspirin is known to reduce the risk of a heart attack in high-risk patients. It also appears to help reduce high blood pressure, but studies looking at this effect have confusing results. Now there may be an explanation: Aspirin only lowers blood pressure when taken before bed.
  • Citations:

  • Science Direct - https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0002937800408203
  • AHA Journal - https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1161/01.HYP.18.3_Suppl.I95
  • AHA Journal - https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1161/01.RES.29.4.424