Salmonella infection (salmonellosis) is a frequent bacterial infection of the intestine. Salmonella germs are commonly found in the intestines of animals and humans and are excreted through feces (feces). Humans are most commonly infected by contaminated water or food.
Salmonella infection might cause no symptoms in some persons. Within 8 to 72 hours of exposure, the majority of persons have diarrhea, fever, and stomach (abdominal) pains. Without special therapy, most healthy people recover in a few days to a week.
Diarrhea can induce severe dehydration in rare circumstances, necessitating immediate medical intervention. If the infection spreads beyond the intestines, life-threatening consequences may occur.
In most cases, salmonella infection is induced by consuming undercooked meat, poultry, eggs, or egg products or drinking unpasteurized milk. The incubation period, or the duration between infection and exposure, can range from 6 hours to 6 days. People who have salmonella infection frequently consider they have stomach flu.https://www.medicoverhospitals.in/articles/stomach-flu
Salmonella infection can cause the following signs and symptoms:
- Cramps in the stomach (abdomen)
- Blood in the feces
Salmonella infection symptoms often persist for a few days to a week. Diarrhea might continue up to ten days, but it can take months for the bowels to recover to normal stool patterns. A few types of salmonella bacteria cause typhoid fever.
When should you see a doctor?
Contact a health care provider if you notice any signs or symptoms that:
- Lasts for many days
- Accompanied by a high temperature or bloody stools
- It appears to be causing dehydration, as evidenced by symptoms such as peeing less than normal, producing dark-colored urine, and having a dry mouth and tongue
Salmonella bacteria can be found in the intestines of humans, animals, and birds. The majority of people become sick with salmonella after ingesting contaminated food or drink
Food and water contamination
Foods that are often contaminated include:
Raw meat or poultry and fish can carry this virus in them. During cutting meat, feces may contaminate uncooked meat and poultry. If seafood is taken from polluted water, it may be contaminated.
Eggs that are raw or undercooked:
While the shell of an egg appears to be a perfect barrier to infection, some infected birds produce eggs that may contain salmonella before the shell is formed. Raw eggs are used to prepare delicacies like mayonnaise and hollandaise sauce.
Dairy products that have not been pasteurized:
Salmonella can be found in unpasteurized milk and milk products, sometimes known as raw milk. Salmonella and other dangerous germs are killed during the pasteurization process.
Vegetables and fruits:
Some fresh vegetables, particularly imported types, may have been watered in the field or washed with salmonella-contaminated water during cultivation. Contamination can also take place in the kitchen also when raw meat and poultry fluids come into touch with unprepared items like salads.
Food that has been improperly handled
Many foods get contaminated when people do not completely wash their hands after using the restroom, changing a diaper, or handling contaminated food.
Infection can also occur when people come into contact with infected objects and then put their fingers in their mouth.
Pets and other infected animals
Salmonella bacteria may be found on the feathers, hair, skin, and excrement of animals and pets, particularly birds and reptiles.
The following factors may raise your risk of salmonella infection:
Taking care of pets: Salmonella bacteria can be carried by many animals. The infection can also be discovered in animal enclosures such as pens, tanks, cages, and litter boxes.
Stomach or bowel problems
The body's natural defenses against salmonella infection are many. Strong stomach acid, for example, may destroy several forms of salmonella bacteria. However, some medical conditions or drugs can disable these natural defenses. Here are several examples:
Lowering the stomach acidity causes more salmonella germs to survive.
IBD (inflammatory bowel disease):
IBD (inflammatory bowel disease): This condition wreaks havoc on the lining of the intestines, making salmonella bacteria thrive.
Recently used antibiotics can limit the quantity of "good" bacteria in the intestines, making it more difficult to fight a salmonella infection.
Some medical conditions or drugs appear to increase your risk of salmonella infection by weakening the immune system. This impairs your body's capacity to combat infection and illness. Here are some medical conditions:
- Sickle cell anemia
- Anti-rejection medications used following organ transplants.
Salmonella infection does not cause serious complications. However, problems can be deadly in certain patients, including infants and young children, older adults, transplant recipients, pregnant women, and persons with weaker immune systems.
One may become dehydrated if do not drink enough liquids to replace the fluid lost through diarrhea. Among the warning signs are:
- Urinating less often than normal or having dark-colored pee
- Mouth and tongue dryness
- Sunken pupils
- When sobbing, there are no tears.
- Being more tired than normal
- Irritation or perplexity
Salmonella infection may infect tissues throughout your body if it reaches your bloodstream (bacteremia), such as.
- The urinary tract infection
- Tissues surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meningitis)
- The heart's lining or valves (endocarditis)
- The skeleton or bone marrow (osteomyelitis)
- Blood vessel lining, particularly if you've undergone a vascular transplant, such as heart vessel bypass surgery.
People who have had salmonella are more likely to develop reactive arthritis as a result of the infection. Reactive arthritis, often known as Reiter's syndrome, generally causes:
- Irritation of the eyes
- Urination that hurts
- Joint discomfort
Salmonella infection is often identified by signs and symptoms.
A stool sample can be tested for Salmonella infection. However, by the time the test results are available, most patients will have recovered from their symptoms.
If your doctor believes you have a salmonella infection, a sample of your blood may be tested for the bacterium.
Most healthy people recover in a few days to a week without special therapy. Adequate fluid intake can help you recover by preventing dehydration.
Because salmonella infection can lead to dehydration, therapy focuses on replenishing lost fluids and electrolytes – minerals that help the body regulate its water levels.
If the dehydration is severe, fluids may be administered directly into a vein (intravenous).
In addition to recommending you to drink plenty of fluids, your doctor may suggest the following:
Antibiotics may be prescribed by your doctor to destroy germs. These are often administered if your physician feels that salmonella germs have entered your bloodstream, your infection is severe, or you have a compromised immune system.
In most cases of salmonella infection, antibiotics are ineffective. In fact, antibiotics may prolong the time you contain the bacterium and potentially infect others. They may also raise your chances of becoming infected again (relapse).
Dos and Don’ts
To prevent salmonella follow these lists of do’s and don’ts:
|Wash hands after using the washroom and changing diapers, and before eating any food.||Drink unpasteurized (raw) milk.|
|Make sure that children with diarrhea, wash their hands carefully and frequently.||Eat raw, unwashed meat.|
|Wash hands properly after contact with farm animals, pets.||Eat half-cooked food.|
|Wash fruits and vegetables before eating.||Forget to clean hands after touching animals with diarrheal illness.|
|Drink water that is clean and purified.||Eat food without washing hands|
Care at Medicover Hospitals
At Medicover Hospitals, we have the most trusted team of doctors and medical experts who are experienced in providing excellent healthcare services to patients with compassionate care. Our diagnostic department is equipped with modern technology and equipment to conduct the tests required for the diagnosis of Salmonella. We have an excellent team of specialists who collaborate to diagnose and treat this condition with utmost precision to deliver successful treatment outcomes.