By Medicover Hospitals / 29 Dec 2020

Forcefully expel stomach contents out of the mouth. Vomiting can have causes that are not due to an underlying disease. Examples include hangovers, pregnancy, overeating, or motion sickness.


Nausea and Vomiting: Causes and Treatments

Vomiting is a symptom of an underlying disease. It’s a forceful discharge that makes the stomach content. The causes of vomiting may include food poisoning, motion sickness, Ear infection pregnancy, stress, acid reflux, Gastroenteritis, and dizziness. Some of the illnesses may also cause vomitings like pneumonia and sepsis. It can be also a side effect of different medications, including drugs that are used during cancer chemotherapy and radiation therapy.


Causes of vomiting

Some common causes of vomiting

  • Food Poisoning
  • Indigestion
  • Infections
  • Motion Sickness
  • Pregnancy
  • Headaches
  • Medications
  • Anesthesia
  • Chemotherapy

Specific causes of vomiting

Gastroenteritis:

Gastric can be the main cause of vomiting. It is caused by something that irritates your stomach. Some examples are:

  • Infections: These are always the cause of your stomach irritation. The cramp can be felt on the upper abdominal which can lead to vomiting.
  • Stomach flu: It can be commonly called gastric. Vomiting and diarrhea can be caused because of a viral infection. This can be caused due to flu (influenza) and viral infections that include symptoms like fever cough and body cramps.
  • Food Poisoning: It may cause continuous vomiting. The symptoms can be seen within some hours of eating contaminated food.
  • Other stomach problems: Alcohol, smoking, and anti-inflammatory medications can cause stomach irritant and may cause vomiting.

Vomiting during Pregnancy:

During pregnancy, vomiting can be caused due to hormonal changes in the bloodstream. Most women can face morning sickness this can be seen during the first month of pregnancy. The symptoms of vomiting and morning sickness can be resolve within four months of pregnancy.

Headaches and Vomiting:

  • Headache: Migraine is the main cause of vomiting.
  • Inner ear: Motion sickness, ear infection, vertigo are the causes of vomiting
  • Food Poisoning: It may cause continuous vomiting. The symptoms can be seen within some hours of eating contaminated food.
  • Increased pressure in the head

Some kind of illness or injury can increase the pressure in your skull which can lead to vomiting.

  • Trauma
  • Infection
  • Tumors

Diseases or illness:

The illness that is associated with the abdominal organs that can produce symptoms of vomiting are:

  • Headache: Migraine is the main cause of vomiting.
  • Inner ear: Motion sickness, ear infection, vertigo are the causes of vomiting
  • Food Poisoning: It may cause continuous vomiting. The symptoms can be seen within some hours of eating contaminated food.
  • Increased pressure in the head

Some kind of illness or injury can increase the pressure in your skull which can lead to vomiting.

  • Hepatitis
  • Gallbladder disease
  • Pancreatitis
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Kidney disease

The drug side effect can be a cause of vomiting:

  • Side effects of medications: Medicines can be sometimes the main reason for vomiting. Drugs that are used while cancer treatment during chemotherapy commonly causes vomiting. Anti-inflammatory and antibiotics can have some major side effects.
  • Radiation therapy: Vomiting can also be caused due to radiation therapy.
Cause
Description
Treatment
Gastroenteritis

It’s also known as stomach flu. This can be caused due to eating undercooked food or raw fruits and vegetables.

With a home, treatment can be cured within 2-3 days. Drink enough water for keeping your body hydrated.

Food Poisoning

The bacterial infection is transformed through spoiled food.

Need to visit Hospital immediately and can be cured within 3-4 days.

Ear infection

Infection that causes swollen in your ear

Antibiotics prescribed by Doctor

Pregnancy

Vomiting is a common symptom of pregnancy

Drink plenty of water to keep your body hydrated

Stress

Anxiety or intense emotion can cause vomiting.

Take deep breaths Do exercises regularly


Signs of Vomiting

  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Lightheadedness
  • Dizziness
  • Rapid pulse
  • Excessive sweating
  • Dry mouth
  • Chest pain
  • Fainting

Diagnosis:

  • If you need to see a physician for vomiting, they will take your medical history and perform a physical exam to find the underlying cause. A history of your treatment will be taken to see if vomiting is a side effect.
  • Blood and urine tests will be done to look for signs of infection. Women can also take a pregnancy test.
  • According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), your doctor will also look for signs of dehydration, including dry skin, chapped lips, dark-colored urine, dizziness, fatigue, and sweating, and more than urine habit.

Vomiting emergencies:

Vomiting is a very common thing but if there is an emergency then medical attention is required.

  • Vomiting that is caused for more than one day
  • Food poisoning
  • ISevere headache and stiff neck
  • Abdominal pain
  • Blood vomiting

Vomiting Treatments:

Some major treatment that can be taken to avoid vomiting are:

  • Drinking plenty of liquids to get rid of dehydration
  • Take a liquid diet to give some rest to your stomach
  • Avoid using strong perfumes
  • If you are taking solid food prefer digestible food like cereal and rice.
  • Avoid eating spicy foods for someday.
  • Avoid physical activities
  • Eating light and bland foods
  • Eat slowly and take smaller bites
  • Avoid activity after eating
  • Do deep breathing exercises

If you have planned for a trip and you have a history of motion sickness in this case you can take advice from Doctor and he will prescribe you medicines. For the patients who are going through chemotherapy, the doctor may change your drug therapy.
The doctor might prescribe antiemetic drugs for vomiting.


Prevention measures for Vomiting:

  • Avoid solid foods that are hard to digest.
  • Try eating cold food
  • Divide your meal into six parts.
  • After having your food don’t lay down
  • Where is the itching most severe?
  • Drink enough glasses of water to avoid stomach irritants.

When to visit a Doctor?

  • If vomiting lasts for more than two days in adults.
  • Experienced sudden weight loss due to vomiting.
  • If you get blood vomiting.
  • Due to vomiting if you get severe chest pain.
  • Severe stomach cramp or abdominal pain.
  • If home treatment is not working you can visit a Doctor.
  • Due to dehydration or any head injury or infection which causes vomiting.
  • Fever over 101 degrees Fahrenheit can cause vomiting.
  • If you get food poisoning due to contaminated food
  • Stomach pain due to infection or the presence of bacteria.

Home Remedies:

Some natural home remedies that can cure you from vomiting are:

  • Drink enough water
  • Drinking Juice
  • Taking deep breathe
  • Wrist acupressure
  • Try taking ginger, fennel, and cloves
  • Sugar and saltwater
  • Take lemonade water

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Frequently Asked Questions

1. How to stop vomiting?

  • Drinking plenty of liquids to get rid of dehydration
  • Take a liquid diet to give some rest to your stomach
  • Do deep breathing exercises

2. How to stop vomiting using home remedies?

  • Try taking ginger, fennel, and cloves
  • Sugar and saltwater
  • Take lemonade water

3. What causes vomiting?

The causes of vomiting may include food poisoning, motion sickness, ear infection, pregnancy, stress, acid reflux, Gastroenteritis, and dizziness.

Citations:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0091302284710120
https://associationofanaesthetists-publications.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2044.1997.117-az0113.x
https://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/00003495-200059020-00005
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0002937868904456
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