By Medicover Hospitals / 16 March 2022

Pulmonary Valve Surgery| Procedures| Risks| Frequently Asked Questions

What is Pulmonary Valve Surgery?

  • The techniques of pulmonary valve repair and replacement are used to treat diseases of the pulmonary valve. The pulmonary valve is one of the four valves in the heart that regulate blood flow. It is located between the right ventricle's lower chamber and the pulmonary artery. When the pulmonary valve does not function properly, it is known as pulmonary valve disease. Blood flow from the heart to the lungs may be impaired by this disease. It may happen on its own or in conjunction with other congenital heart defects like the tetralogy of Fallot. A physical examination or cardiac imaging may be the only way to diagnose the condition in certain cases.
  • Purpose of Pulmonary Valve Surgery

  • Pulmonary valve disease treatments mainly depend on the severity of the condition like if a person is experiencing any signs and symptoms or if the condition is getting worse. For patients with mild pulmonary valve disease who have no symptoms, close monitoring under the supervision of a doctor might be appropriate. However, without medical attention, pulmonary valve disorder and dysfunction frequently persist and may worsen.
  • pulmonary-valve-surgery

    Pulmonary Valve Regurgitation

  • When the pulmonary valve does not completely seal, blood flows back into the heart causing pulmonary valve regurgitation.
  • Pulmonary valve stenosis

  • The most common method for fixing a pulmonary valve is open-heart surgery with an opening of the chest bone (sternotomy). After the operation, the bone is wired back together to avoid movement and help in healing.
  • Surgery or a less invasive technique called balloon valvuloplasty, which uses a cardiac catheterization approach, can be used to patch pulmonary valves that can't open completely due to stenosis. Cardiac catheterization is usually performed when the patient is awake, and it involves a much shorter hospital stay than standard heart surgery
  • Pulmonary atresia

  • Pulmonary atresia is a cardiac birth abnormality in which the valve that controls blood flow from the heart to the lungs does not form at all. Blood has problems flowing to the lungs to gather up oxygen for the body in babies with this condition.
  • Risks of Pulmonary Valve Surgery

  • Risks that are associated with pulmonary valve repair and pulmonary valve replacement can include:
    • Bleeding
    • Blood clots
    • Valve dysfunction in replacement valves
    • Heart rhythm problems
    • Infection
    • Heart attack
    • Stroke

    Pulmonary Valve Surgery Procedures

    Before the procedure

  • Before admitting the patient the doctor will give a brief on what they should follow and which food to eat and what medications they should avoid
  • During the Procedure

  • For the majority of pulmonary valve repair and replacement operations, you'll be given medications (anaesthetics) to put you to sleep so you don't feel any discomfort during the operation. During the procedure, the patient will be connected to a heart-lung bypass machine, which will maintain blood flow throughout the body.
  • Pulmonary Valve Surgery

  • The most common method for fixing a pulmonary valve is open-heart surgery with an opening of the chest bone (sternotomy). After the operation, the bone is wired back together to avoid movement and help in healing.
  • Surgery or a less invasive technique called balloon valvuloplasty, which uses a cardiac catheterization approach, can be used to patch pulmonary valves that can't open completely due to stenosis. Cardiac catheterization is usually performed when the patient is awake, and it involves a much shorter hospital stay than standard heart surgery.
  • Pulmonary Valve Replacement

  • The pulmonary valve is removed and replaced with a mechanical valve made of artificial materials or a biological valve. Open-heart surgery or minimally invasive procedures can be used to repair a pulmonary valve. Minimally invasive methods use smaller incisions than open-heart surgery.
  • Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve Replacement

  • Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement is the most common form of minimally invasive pulmonary valve replacement. During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into a large blood vessel in the groyne or chest and directed to the heart. A new, balloon-expandable replacement pulmonary valve is then inserted at the end of the catheter. In a valve-in-valve operation, a catheter may be used to insert a new pulmonary valve into an existing replacement valve that is failing.
  • After the Procedure

    • The patient will normally spend a day or more in the intensive care unit (ICU) after open-heart pulmonary valve repair or pulmonary valve replacement.
    • Intravenous (IV) lines will be used to deliver fluids, nutrients, and medications.
    • After staying in ICU for a few days the patient will then be moved to a separate room. The patient would be asked to stay for further observation

    Treatment during the hospital stay:

    • Watch the signs of infections in the incision sites.
    • Periodically check your blood pressure, breathing, and heart rate.
    • Identify if there is any pain after the surgery.
    • Will provide you instruction to walk regularly for increasing the physical activity and ask you to do some breathing exercises for a speedy recovery.

    Life style

  • The patient may gradually be able to resume regular activities after pulmonary valve repair or replacement surgery. They may need to take some drugs and follow up with their doctor regularly. Several tests can be done to determine and track the condition.
  • To reduce the risk of potential complications and for a healthy heart, the doctor and health care team can encourage to follow a healthy lifestyle.
  • The skill and experience of the doctor and hospital play a major role in the success and protection of minimally invasive pulmonary valve replacement.
  • Frequently Asked Questions:

    A man-made valve has a 30-year lifetime. Blood-thinner drugs can be recommended by the doctor to avoid blood clots that may occur as a result of a mechanical valve.

    Most people take between 4 and 8 weeks to recover from valve surgery. The patient would be able to heal much quicker if you had minimally invasive surgery. They’ll be given clear instructions for exercise, drugs, wound treatment, and resuming regular activities before you leave the hospital

    Blood does not flow efficiently to the lungs to acquire enough oxygen when the pulmonary valve is missing or not functioning properly. In the majority of cases, a hole exists between the left and right ventricles of the heart (ventricular septal defect).

    Valve replacement is generally safe. However, problems can arise with any surgery or procedure. Bleeding during or after therapy, as well as damage to the blood vessels, are all possible side effects of treatment.

    Patients who had their aortic valve replaced surgically have a shorter life expectancy than the general population, with the decline in life expectancy being particularly apparent in the young.

    The right ventricle (the chamber of the heart that pumps blood into the lungs) cannot get blood into the lungs if the main pulmonary artery is fully blocked. The affected person's age and health are other important considerations.

    Adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot have a low death rate after pulmonary valve replacement. The most prevalent early postoperative consequences are Arrhythmias, pulmonary and renal problems.

    The issues caused by one or more damaged heart valves are treated through valve repair or replacement surgery. You may experience the following symptoms if your heart valves become inflamed or infected: dizziness or pain in the chest.