Home | Procedures | Bariatric Surgery
By Dr Sandeep C Sabnis
General Surgeon
Published on 14 September 2022

Article Context

  1. Overview
  2. Types
  3. Procedure
  4. Benefits
  5. Risks
  6. Frequently Asked Questions

Overview

A type of surgery that aids in weight loss is called bariatric surgery. Some obese people who have tried everything else to lose weight but did not get the desired results will select it. If you are morbidly obese or obese and have an obesity-related health issue, your doctor may recommend bariatric surgery. These include diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep disorders, asthma, and arthritis.

There are many different bariatric surgery techniques.The bariatric surgery most effective for you will depend on several factors, including your general health, your health requirements, and your personal preferences.

Types

Lap Banding: Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is another name for lap banding. Your doctor will wrap an adjustable band across the top of your stomach during lap banding.

Additionally, a port is a small device that your surgeon inserts under the skin of your stomach. From the band to the port is a narrow tube. In order to make the band tighter around the top of the stomach, fluid is injected into the port and flows to the band.

If the band is too tight, fluid can also be drained through the port to loosen it. Your stomach band limits how much food you can eat at once.

Gastric bypass: Gastric bypass is another common type of bariatric surgery, and it is also called a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The amount of food you can eat at a time is also decreased due to this procedure.

Additionally, it limits how many calories and nutrients you can absorb from your food. The surgeon removes a portion of the stomach during a gastric bypass procedure to form a small pouch. Afterward, the pouch is joined to a section of your small intestine.

Since there is less food in this small pouch, you will feel full more quickly. You absorb fewer calories and nutrients when food bypasses the remainder of the stomach and the upper part of the small intestine.

Sleeve gastrectomy: Up to 85% of the stomach is removed. It is also referred to as a vertical sleeve gastrectomy or a gastric sleeve. After the procedure, the stomach is transformed into a slender tube that resembles a sleeve. Because there is less food in the sleeve, you get fuller more quickly. Additionally, your stomach produces less ghrelin, a hormone that promotes appetite.

Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS): It is a less common type of surgery. Similar to the sleeve gastrectomy, your surgeon will perform this treatment to construct a gastric sleeve by removing a portion of the stomach. The sleeve is then attached to a part of the lower small intestine. Your body absorbs less calories and nutrients from food since the sleeve holds much less food.

Procedure

Before the Procedure

  • You must undergo blood tests, chest x ray, echocardiograms and endoscopy of upper gastrointestinal tract before surgery.
  • The doctor will analyze your medical history and determine whether you have any allergies, bleeding problems, are pregnant, or have any other disorders.
  • You have to stop certain habits like smoking, chewing tobacco, and excess alcohol consumption, which can delay the recovery period.
  • One night before the procedure, you can receive an enema. Additionally, it is necessary to fast for the entire night. To keep you hydrated, intravenous fluid may be given.
bariatric-surgery

During the Procedure

  • You will be shifted to an operation room an hour or two before the procedure.
  • The anaesthetist will inject you with general anaesthesia to put you into a deep sleep.
  • A tube known as a nasogastric tube is introduced into the stomach through the nose to remove the stomach contents.
  • An incision is made from the upper abdomen to the lower abdominal region to expose the stomach.
  • Depending upon the type of bariatric surgery, the stomach is banded, or part of it is removed.
  • Sutures are used to close the abdominal incision after the surgery is complete.
  • Laparoscopic or robotic surgery is also used to do bariatric surgery.
  • The steps of laparoscopic surgery are similar to open bariatric surgery, except small incisions are used to connect a tiny video camera for visualizing the stomach on the screen.
  • In robotic surgery, the surgeon controls the robotic arms remotely and performs the procedure precisely.

After the Procedure

  • After the procedure you will be shifted to the recovery room in the hospital.
  • Once the bowel movements resume their normal pattern, you will be given intravenous fluids and allowed to drink liquids.
  • You can slowly consume semi-solid and solid foods as the healing process continues.

Depending on the operation type and your general health, the doctor will decide on your discharge from the hospital.

Benefits

  • Significant & sustainable weight loss
  • Increased energy levels
  • Better ability to engage in physical activities
  • Improved breathing
  • Lower risks for various diseases and conditions such as diabetes, asthma, high blood pressure, sleep apnea and infertility are associated with obesity.

Risks

Surgery is a risky procedure and the risks may vary depending on your overall health, age, the type of surgery you select, and the amount of weight you need to reduce.

Risks of bariatric surgery include:

  • Bleeding
  • Infection due to a leak from the staple lines from the stomach or small bowel
  • Blockage in the intestinal blockage
  • Poor wound healing at the incisions
  • Problems with the band or the port
  • Gastric reflux
  • Dumping syndrome. This can cause nausea, a fast heartbeat, abdominal cramping, fainting, and diarrhea after eating.
  • Gallstones that requires surgery to remove the gallbladder
  • Nutritional deficiencies from poor absorption
  • Need for follow-up surgery

Care at Medicover

Bariatric surgery team at Medicover hospitals has expertise at performing different types of weight loss surgeries. Bariatric surgeons make a customised treatment plan which is formulated according to the unique needs of every individual in accordance with a set weight-loss goal.We specialise in performing minimally invasive procedures using advanced technology to reduce the pain and help in quick recovery. Extensive after-care is provided to avoid any complications.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Gastric banding (LAP-BAND) and sleeve gastrectomy can be performed in 1-2 hours while gastric bypass is generally performed in 2-3 hours.

An individual is considered eligible for surgery when the body mass index is greater than 40 or between 35 and 40 with major obesity related medical problems.

Depending on how your body was positioned during surgery, you can have pain at the incision site. When the body reabsorbs the anaesthetic gas used during surgery, some individuals also experience pain in their neck and shoulders.

After surgery, sleeping on your back or side is the best position. By doing this, you'll be able to prevent pressure in the stomach and lungs, which can be uncomfortable. To keep your spine straight if you sleep on your side, it is preferable to place a pillow between your legs.

A low-calorie diet two weeks before the surgery can significantly reduce the size of the liver and speed up your weight reduction.

References