PCOD, also known as Polycystic Ovarian Disease, is a hormonal disorder that affects most women. During their reproductive years, this is relatively prevalent. In India, PCOD affects between 10% and 25% of women. Various hormones in our bodies operate in tandem to ensure that all systems function properly. A woman's hormones go out of sync when she has PCOS. This causes a variety of issues, such as irregular menstruation, infertility, weight gain, acne, and so on. If addressed, this illness can lead to significant health issues in women, such as heart disease and diabetes.

What is PCOD?

Polycystic Ovarian Disease is caused by a hormonal imbalance in women. Ovulation is the process of release of an egg from a woman's ovary throughout her menstrual cycle. Ovaries also create a limited amount of androgens or male reproductive hormones. The hormonal imbalance in PCOD causes an overproduction of male hormones, and this causes periods to be delayed and cysts to grow in the ovaries. This disease can also result in a total lack of ovulation, leading to infertility in women.


Many women are completely unaware that they have PCOD. It is very important to pay attention to these symptoms in order to get an early diagnosis of the condition. PCOD symptoms are as follows:

1. Inconsistent Periods:

This is the most prevalent PCOD symptom, and the initial indicator of PCOD is irregular or light periods. To detect PCOD, pay close attention to your monthly cycle.

2. Excessive Hair on the Face and Body:

Hirsutism is a disorder characterized by excessive hair growth on the face. Ovaries release a large quantity of male hormone androgens in PCOD, causing excessive hair growth in women.

3. Mood Changes:

PCOD is characterized by irregular periods and a hormonal imbalance in the body. This hormonal imbalance causes mood swings.

4. Acne

AcnePCOD disrupts hormones, resulting in a variety of face issues such as acne. Acne is the most common symptom of PCOD. PCOD causes severe cystic acne in certain women.

5. Rapid Weight Gain:

In PCOD, the body produces a lot of insulin and male hormones. This causes women to acquire weight quickly. Fat accumulation in the lower belly is a typical sign of PCOD.

6. Excessive Oiliness:

The skin also suffers from hormone imbalance. It causes acne by producing an excessive quantity of sebum.

7. Heavy Bleeding:

Because the periods are irregular, the uterine wall gets thickened more. This causes more bleeding every time menstruation occurs.

8. Hair Loss:

The majority of PCOD women have excessive hair fall and hair thinning. Some women may lose all of their hair. This is caused by hormonal imbalance in the body.

9. Diabetes:

Women with PCOD are more likely to acquire diabetes due to elevated insulin levels.

10. Darkening of the Skin:

A typical sign of PCOD is the darkening of the skin around the neck or around the private regions.

When to see a doctor?

Once you notice irregularities in periods, immediately visit your doctor. Irregular periods or no periods can be a sign of many health conditions.

Causes of PCOD

PCOD is caused due to a hormonal imbalance induced by a variety of factors. Some of the factors linked to PCOD include:


PCOD is sometimes inherited. If you have any relatives with PCOD/PCOS, such as your mother, sister, or aunt, your chances of having it are generally enhanced. This shows that PCOD may have a hereditary impact.


PCOD is related to a high rate of glucose intolerance due to insulin action and cell function abnormalities. Obesity exacerbates these abnormalities significantly; as a result, glucose intolerance is quite common in obese women with PCOD.

High amounts of inflammation:

Excess ovarian androgen production is directly stimulated by inflammation. Increased abdominal adiposity adds to PCOD's inflammatory burden, and its progression may be influenced by the degree of hyperandrogenism.

High quantities of male hormone production:

When there is an imbalance of hormones, and the female body starts producing more male hormones, PCOD/PCOS starts developing.

Unhealthy way of living:

The most common cause of PCOD/PCOS is having a sedentary lifestyle. Unhealthy lifestyle habits such as eating outside food, disturbed sleep patterns, no physical activity, etc affect the menstrual cycle.

Dietary deficiencies:

Inadequate nutrition and intake of improper diet can cause PCOD. A deficiency of vitamins and nutrients can affect the general health and the period cycle, causing PCOD.

Extra Insulin:

High insulin levels can impair ovulation and cause the ovaries to produce too much testosterone level.

Future complications

PCOD is a hormonal issue rather than a disease. Early detection, on the other hand, might save you from later issues.


PCOD affects the frequency of ovulation in women, resulting in infertility. It causes menstruation issues and delayed periods. All of this might contribute to infertility issues when a woman attempts to conceive.


Diabetes may be caused by PCOD, which develops due to insulin resistance in the body. Diabetes might develop if PCOD is not treated promptly.

Cardiovascular Disease:

PCOD can cause a rise in blood pressure. It can result in irregular heartbeats and other heart-related issues.

Endometrial Cancer:

Endometrial Cancer: Endometrium is the uterine lining. PCOD causes ovulation to be delayed, which raises the risk of endometrial cancer.


Depression: Many women experience depression during PCOD as a result of hormonal imbalance, obesity and acn


The gynecologist may be able to diagnose PCOD based on the following criteria:

Medical history

To diagnose PCOD doctor will obtain complete information on menstrual cycles and weight changes. The presence of at least two of the following symptoms indicates PCOD:

  • Periodic irregularities
  • Symptoms of elevated androgen levels
  • Hirsutism
  • Acne
  • Hair loss
  • Increased androgen levels in the blood
  • Ovaries with polycystic cysts

Examination of the physical body

Pelvic exam to look for tumors, growths, or other abnormalities in the reproductive organs.


Some tests are done, such as hormonal tests, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and so on.


Ultrasound: Ultrasound is done to assess ovaries; no. of cysts in ovaries, it will also show the thickness of the uterine lining.

Additional examinations


There is no particular medication that can be used to treat PCOD. However, your doctor will prescribe some medications if needed. Certain lifestyle and dietary adjustments can aid in its treatment and management. The following are some methods for dealing with PCOD:

  • Maintain a nutritious diet.
  • Sugar and carbs should be avoided.
  • Consume more high-fiber meals.
  • Consume lean protein-rich foods.
  • Exercise on a daily basis, and be physically active.
  • Consume plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables.
  • Avoid processed foods and saturated fats.
  • Avoid meals that increase estrogen levels.
  • Get at least 8 hours of sleep.
  • Improve your stress management.
  • Stop eating oily or deep-fried food.

Do’s and Don’ts

A woman with PCOD has to follow sets of do's and don'ts to manage related symptoms. Following these tips will help in decreasing its complications.

Eat healthy foodEat Refined flour and junk foods
Take proper restDo smoking
Regular exercise, yoga, or any physical activityTake alcohol or other beverages containing alcohol content.
Maintain a healthy weightTake much stress
Take medications on timeIgnore menstrual cycle abnormalities

If you follow the above mentioned tips, it will be easy for you to manage PCOD and decrease its future complications like infertility.

Care at Medicover

At Medicover Hospitals, we have the most trusted team of Gynecologists and medical experts who are experienced in providing excellent healthcare services to patients. Our diagnostic department is equipped with modern technology and equipment to conduct the tests required for the diagnosis of PCOD/PCOS. We have an excellent team of top doctors and women's health specialists who diagnose and treat this condition with utmost precision that brings successful treatment outcomes.