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Dental specialities refer to the different areas of dentistry that focus on specific oral health issues or treatments. Dentistry is a vast field that includes a range of procedures and techniques for diagnosing, treating, and preventing dental diseases and conditions. Dental specialities allow dentists to gain advanced knowledge and skills in specific areas of dentistry, enabling them to provide specialised care to patients. Leading dental specialities include endodontics, orthodontics, periodontics, oral and maxillofacial surgery, pediatric dentistry, and prosthodontics.

Endodontists specialise in root canal therapy, while orthodontists focus on correcting misaligned teeth and jaws. Periodontists treat gum diseases, while oral and maxillofacial surgeons perform complex dental procedures such as wisdom teeth removal and jaw reconstruction. Pediatric dentists specialise in treating children's dental problems, while prosthodontists specialise in dental prosthetics such as dentures and implants.

Dentists must complete additional training beyond dental school to become dental specialists. This can include a residency program, which typically lasts 2-3 years and provides advanced training in a particular speciality. In addition, some dental specialities require dentists to pass a speciality board examination to become board-certified. Board certification is voluntary, but it is often seen as a mark of excellence and indicates that the dentist has achieved a high level of knowledge and skill in their speciality.

Types of Dentistry

There are several types of dentistry, each with its focus and specialisation. Here are some brief explanations of the different types of dentistry:

General Dentistry:

General dentistry focuses on maintaining oral health and treating common dental problems, such as cavities and gum disease.

Pediatric Dentistry:

Pediatric dentistry is a subspecialty focusing on the dental health of newborns, children, and adolescents.


It is a field of dentistry that focuses on the alignment and positioning of teeth, often using braces or other devices to correct misaligned teeth.


Endodontics is a specialised field of dentistry that deals with treating the dental pulp and the tissues surrounding the roots of teeth, commonly referred to as a root canal.


It is a dentistry branch that focuses on preventing, diagnosing, and treating gum disease.


Prosthodontics is a field of dentistry that focuses on the design, creation, and fitting of dental prostheses, such as dentures, bridges, and dental implants.

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery:

This is a specialised field of dentistry that involves surgical procedures to treat conditions of the mouth, teeth, jaws, and related facial structures.

Symptoms of Dental Conditions

Here are some common symptoms of dental conditions:

  • Toothache or tooth pain
  • Sensitivity to hot or cold temperatures
  • Swollen, red or bleeding gums
  • Bad breath in the mouth
  • Loose or shifting teeth
  • Mouth sores or ulcers
  • Difficulty chewing or biting
  • Clicking or popping jaw
  • Dry mouth or excessive saliva
  • Cracked or chipped teeth
  • Tooth discolouration or darkening
  • Receding gums
  • Jaw pain or stiffness
  • Halitosis (persistent bad breath)
  • Headaches or earaches.

If you experience these symptoms, seeking dental care immediately is important to prevent further damage and potential complications.

Importance Of Healthy Teeth

Healthy teeth play an essential role in overall health and well-being. They help us bite, chew and digest our food correctly, which is crucial for good nutrition and maintaining a healthy body. Healthy teeth also contribute to clear speech and a confident smile, improving self-esteem and social interactions. In addition, healthy teeth are important for maintaining the structure of the jawbone and the alignment of the teeth, which can prevent problems such as TMJ disorders and tooth loss. Therefore, it is important to practice good oral hygiene habits such as brushing, flossing, and visiting the dentist regularly to keep our teeth healthy.

In addition to their functional benefits, healthy teeth have aesthetic and psychological benefits. A healthy and attractive smile can improve one's appearance and make a positive first impression on others. This can increase confidence and success in both personal and professional settings. Furthermore, good oral hygiene practices can reduce the risk of tooth decay, gum disease, and other oral health problems, which can cause discomfort, pain, and expensive dental treatments. By caring for our teeth, we can maintain good oral health, improve our overall health and well-being, and enjoy the many benefits of a healthy and confident smile.

Reasons For Oral Defects

Various factors, including genetic and environmental factors, can cause oral defects. Here are some common reasons for oral defects:

Genetic factors:

Some oral defects can be caused by genetic factors. For example, cleft lip and palate are genetic conditions that can cause oral defects.

Environmental factors:

Exposure to certain environmental factors during pregnancy or early childhood can cause oral defects. These factors may include smoking, alcohol consumption, and certain medications.


Infections like gum disease and tooth decay can cause oral defects. These conditions can lead to tooth loss and other oral health problems.

Developmental abnormalities:

Some oral defects can be caused by developmental abnormalities. For example, delayed eruption of teeth can cause problems with tooth alignment and spacing.

Medical conditions:

Certain medical conditions can cause oral defects. For example, diabetes can increase the risk of gum disease and tooth decay.


Certain habits can cause oral defects. For example, thumb-sucking can cause problems with tooth alignment.

Poor nutrition:

Lack of essential vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin C and calcium, can cause oral defects. These nutrients are essential for healthy teeth and gums.

Maintaining good oral hygiene practices, visiting the dentist regularly, and avoiding risk factors to prevent oral defects are important.

Treatment Available

There are several types of treatments available in dentistry. These are some of the most common:

Regular check-ups and cleanings:

It is recommended to have a dental check-up and cleaning every six months to maintain good oral health and prevent dental problems.


Fillings are used to treat cavities caused by tooth decay. The damaged part of the tooth is removed and replaced with a filling material such as composite resin, porcelain, or amalgam.

Root canal therapy:

A root canal may be required if a tooth is highly decayed or damaged. This involves removing the affected pulp from the tooth and filling the area with a material to prevent future infection.

Crowns and bridges:

Crowns cover a damaged or weakened tooth to restore its shape and function. Bridges replace missing teeth by anchoring a false tooth to the neighbouring teeth.

Teeth whitening:

Teeth whitening treatments brighten discoloured or stained teeth. These can be done in-office or at home with custom trays and whitening gel.


Orthodontic treatments, such as braces or clear aligners, correct misaligned teeth and improve bite function.


Dental implants are replacement tooth or bridge roots implanted into the jawbone.

Oral surgery:

Oral surgery may be necessary to remove impacted wisdom teeth, treat gum disease, or place dental implants.

Periodontal therapy:

Periodontal therapy treats gum disease and prevents further damage to the gums and bone supporting the teeth.

Diagnostic tests

Diagnostic tests are an important part of dentistry as they help dentists to identify any dental issues and formulate a suitable treatment plan. Some of the commonly used diagnostic tests in dentistry include:


X-rays detect problems that are not visible during a visual examination, such as decay, cysts, or tumours. They are also useful in detecting roots or bone structure abnormalities.

Oral cancer screening:

Oral cancer screening involves examining the mouth for any signs of cancer or pre-cancerous conditions. This may include a visual exam and other tests, such as a biopsy.

Saliva testing:

Saliva testing is used to evaluate the levels of certain enzymes and antibodies in the saliva, which can indicate the presence of infection or inflammation.

Dental impression:

A dental impression is a mould of the teeth used to create a model of the teeth for various purposes, such as making dentures or dental crowns.

Bite analysis:

A bite analysis evaluates how the teeth fit together when biting and chewing. This can help to identify any alignment or functional problems.

Digital imaging:

Digital imaging produces high-quality images of the teeth and surrounding tissues, which can be used for diagnosis and treatment planning.

CT scans:

This scan produces 3D images of the mouth and jaw. It diagnoses more complex dental issues, such as jaw tumours or fractures.

Dental exams:

During a dental exam, the dentist will visually inspect your teeth and gums, looking for signs of decay, gum disease, and other oral health problems.


If an oral cancer screening reveals a suspicious lesion, the dentist may perform a biopsy to remove a small portion of tissue for further testing.

Overall, diagnostic tests in dentistry are an important tool for identifying dental issues and developing a customised treatment plan for each patient.