Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the vertebra. An individual's spine usually has a curve at the top of the shoulder and a turn at the lower back. You might have Scoliosis if your spine is curved from side to side or in an "S" or "C" shape. Scoliosis is not often apparent, although some patients may lean to one side or have unequal shoulders or hips due to the curvature in their spine. Because the curve frequently does not advance significantly, the person typically does not require treatment.

However, doctors could advise a mix of back bracing and physical therapy depending on the severity of the curvature. A few people with Scoliosis can require surgery. Scoliosis may have side effects such as persistent discomfort, respiratory problems, and a decreased ability to exercise.


Following are the types of scoliosis:

  • Idiopathic scoliosis
  • Congenital scoliosis
  • Neuromuscular scoliosis,
  • Degenerative scoliosis


Scoliosis often develops in childhood or adolescence, and the symptoms vary depending on the person's age.

Symptoms in Adolescents

The most common type of Scoliosis is adolescent idiopathic Scoliosis, which usually develops during adolescence. Among the symptoms are the following:

  • One hip may be larger than the other.
  • The ribs on each side may be of slightly different heights,
  • The head may appear to be slightly off center.
  • Urgent urination
  • The clothes may not hang evenly
  • The person may lean to one side
  • One shoulder blade or shoulder may be higher than the other.
  • The legs may be slightly different lengths

Even though some types of Scoliosis might induce back pain, it rarely causes acute pain, and elderly individuals are more likely to have this symptom.

Symptoms in Infants

In infants, symptoms can include:

  • A bulging on one side of the chest
  • Consistently resting with one side of the body curved
  • In severe cases, heart and lung disorders cause shortness of breath and chest discomfort.

A baby with Scoliosis with no treatment is more likely to experience health issues such as weak heart and poor lung function later in life.

When to see a doctor?

Consult a doctor if you believe you or your child has scoliosis. Consult a physician if your child has back pain, uneven shoulders or knees, or scoliosis signs.


Below are some possible causes of Scoliosis:

Muscles and nerves are both affected by neuromuscular diseases. It includes muscular dystrophy, poliomyelitis, and cerebral palsy.

Congenital Scoliosis:

"Congenital" refers to a condition present from birth. Scoliosis can develop if the spine's bones grow improperly while the baby develops; however it is rare to have it at birth.

Specific genes:

Scientists believe that at least one gene leads to the development of Scoliosis.

Leg length:

An individual may develop Scoliosis if one leg is longer than the other.

Syndromic Scoliosiscan develop as a symptom of a wide range of illnesses, such as neurofibromatosis or Marfan's disease.


As a result of bone deterioration, Osteoporosis can lead to secondary Scoliosis.

Other causes:

  • Carrying backpacks or suitcases
  • Poor posture
  • Connective tissue disorders
  • Some injuries can cause spinal curvature

Risk Factors

Scoliosis risk factors are as follows:


Before puberty, symptoms, and signs may begin with a growth spurt.


Women are more prone than men to develop Scoliosis.


Close family members with Scoliosis are usually affected by the condition.


Scoliosis complications are:

Heart and lung damage –

When Scoliosis is severe, the rib cage may push against the heart and lungs, which affects breathing and the heart's ability to pump blood and damages both the heart and lungs.

Back issues –

Scoliosis in children increases the likelihood of developing chronic back pain later in life.

Appearance –

The body may experience visible changes when Scoliosis worsens. For instance, the ribs could be visible, the shoulders or hips might look uneven, or the spine and waist might appear to be shifting to one side. The patient often feels self-conscious about their looks as a result of this.


The doctor will examine the spine physically to evaluate if you have Scoliosis. The doctor might also request additional imaging tests to check the spine thoroughly.

Physical exam:

Individuals will be instructed to stand with their arms at their sides while the doctor evaluates the back. They'll look at the symmetry of the shoulders, and waist as well as the curve of the spine. The doctor will then instruct you to bend forward so they may check both your upper and lower back for any curves.

Imaging tests:

The doctor could recommend imaging examinations to detect scoliosis, such as:


X-ray: During this test, small amounts of radiation are used to create a picture of your spine.

MRI scan:

MRI scan: This test uses radio and magnetic waves to get a detailed picture of bones and the surrounding tissue.

CT scan:

CT scan: During this test, X-rays are taken at various angles to get a 3-D picture of the body.

Bone scan:

Bone scan: This test detects a radioactive solution injected into your blood that concentrates in areas of increased circulation, highlighting spinal abnormalities.


You may not require treatment for mild scoliosis. Instead, to see whether it's getting worse, the doctor could keep an eye on your condition and sometimes suggest X-rays. Some children with scoliosis heal from it. A doctor may advise the following treatment methods:


Wearing a brace around the torso helps prevent the curvature from deteriorating in children who are still growing. Most children wear them 24 hours a day, and they are often made of plastic and do not interfere with your daily activities.

Spinal fusion surgery:

In this procedure, the doctor fills the gaps between the spine's bones with bone fragments or a similar material. The bones are held in place by metal until they grow with each other or join. The spine's curvature can be reduced and prevented from worsening with surgery.

Spine and rib-based growing operation:

This is used to treat more severe scoliosis in growing children. The surgeon uses metal to fasten rods to the ribs or spine. The doctor adjusts the rods' size as children grow.

Dos and Don’ts

Scoliosis is an abnormal condition in which the spine has a sideways curvature. Its symptoms are breathing problems, back pain, poor posture, etc. Follow the dos and don'ts for scoliosis to reduce the impact of symptoms and lead a better life.

Exercise and stretch regularly to strengthen your core & back. Lift or carry heavy things
Maintain an active lifestyle Run long distances on hard surfaces like roads or sidewalks
Use a good quality mattress Sleep on your stomach,
Start the treatment early Do any back extension exercises
Change your sitting positions to avoid stress on your spineDo excessive swimming

Care at Medicover Hospitals

Scoliosis treatment is performed at Medicover hospital by the best team of orthopedic doctors and medical professionals. Our highly skilled staff treats a variety of bone and spinal illnesses using the most up-to-date diagnostic tools, medical equipment, and technologies. We use a multidisciplinary approach to treat scoliosis to give patients satisfactory health outcomes and respond to their medical requirements for a faster and more sustainable recovery.



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