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Frequent Urination (Polyuria)

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By Medicover Hospitals / 27 Mar 2021
Home | symptoms | Frequent Urination
  • Frequent urination or polyuria is the need to urinate more often than normal. Frequent urination can have causes that are not due to an underlying disease. Examples include drinking large amounts of fluids, consuming caffeine, pregnancy, or anxiety.
  • Article Context:

    1. What are Frequent Urination?
    2. Causes
    3. Diagnosis
    4. Treatment
    5. When to visit a Doctor?
    6. Home Remedies
    7. FAQ's

    What are Frequent Urination?

  • Frequent urination, also known as frequent urination, is a condition in which you feel the need to urinate more often than usual. Frequent urination can occur for a variety of reasons, some of which are not serious or harmful. For example, frequent urination can occur after drinking lots of fluids, especially fluids that contain caffeine or alcohol. Pregnancy can cause frequent urination due to the pressure put on the bladder by an enlarged uterus.
  • If frequent urination is unexplained or persistent, it may be a symptom of an underlying disease, disorder, or condition. These include diabetes, urinary tract infection, an enlarged prostate, and the side effects of certain medications, such as diuretics.
  • Frequent urination can occur in all age groups and populations, and it may or may not occur with additional symptoms, such as a bad smell of urine and burning during urination. Nocturia is frequent urination during the night, which is common in middle-aged and older men.
  • Sometimes frequent urination can be due to serious or life-threatening underlying illnesses, such as pyelonephritis, urosepsis, or diabetes. Seek prompt medical attention if you have frequent and persistent urination. Timely diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause reduce the risk of serious or life-threatening complications, such as kidney failure and shock.
  • If you have frequent urination accompanied by symptoms such as high fever, abdominal or flank pain, bloody urine, or change in consciousness or alertness, see a doctor immediately.
  • Causes:

    • Urinary tract infection (UTI) or bladder infection: The lining of the urethra and the bladder become inflamed and irritated because of the byproducts of infection. This irritation of the bladder wall causes the urge to empty the bladder frequently. The amount of urine during each emptying is often less than the usual amount.
    • Diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus: An early symptom of type 1 and type 2 diabetes can be frequent urination as the body tries to get rid of unused glucose through urine. Diabetes can also damage the nerves that control the bladder, causing frequent urination and difficulty controlling your bladder. Use of diuretics: Medicines used to treat high blood pressure or fluid buildup work in the kidneys and remove excess fluid from the body, causing frequent urination.
    • Prostate problems: An enlarged prostate can press against the urethra and block the flow of urine, causing irritation to the bladder wall. The bladder contracts even when it contains small amounts of urine, resulting in more frequent urination.
    • Pregnancy: Hormonal changes and the growth of the uterus that put pressure on the bladder cause frequent urination, even in the first weeks of gestation. The trauma of vaginal childbirth can also damage the urethra.
    • Stress incontinence: This condition mainly occurs in women. The involuntary release of urine during physical activity, such as running, coughing, sneezing, and even laughing, is characteristic of stress incontinence.
    • Interstitial cystitis: This condition is characterized by pain in the bladder and pelvic area, often leading to frequent urination.
    • Stroke or other neurological diseases: Damage to the nerves that supply the bladder can lead to problems with bladder function, including frequent and sudden urges to urinate.
    • Bladder cancer: Tumors that take up space or cause bleeding in the bladder can cause more frequent urination.
    • Multiple sclerosis (MS): Bladder dysfunction, including frequent urination, can occur in at least 80% of patients with MS. MS lesions can block or interrupt the transmission of nerve signals that control the bladder and urinary sphincters.
    • Overactive Bladder Syndrome (OAB): Frequent urination is itself the problem. Involuntary bladder contractions cause frequent and often urgent urination, even if the bladder is not full.
    • Drinking too much: Ingesting more fluids than your body needs can cause the body to urinate more often.
    • Artificial Sweeteners, Alcohol, Caffeine, and Other Foods: Alcohol and caffeine can act as diuretics, which can lead to more frequent urination. Soft drinks, artificial sweeteners, and citrus fruits irritate the bladder, causing more frequent urination.
    • Other causes of frequent urination include anxiety, bladder or kidney stones, urethral stricture, radiation exposure to the pelvis, diverticulitis, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

    Treatment:

  • Treatment will depend on the underlying cause. If the consultation leads to a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, treatment will aim to keep high blood sugar under control. For bacterial infection of the kidneys, the typical treatment is antibiotics and pain relievers. If the cause is an overactive bladder, a medicine called an anticholinergic may be used. These prevent abnormal involuntary contractions of the detrusor muscle from occurring in the bladder wall. A doctor will prescribe and monitor drug therapy. Training in behavioral techniques can also help.
  • Bladder training and exercises:

  • Other treatments treat frequent urination rather than an underlying cause. These include:
    • Kegel exercises: Regular daily exercises, often done around pregnancy, can strengthen the muscles of the pelvis and urethra and support the bladder. For best results, perform Kegel exercises 10 to 20 times per set, three times per day, for at least 4 to 8 weeks.
    • Biofeedback: Used alongside Kegel exercises, biofeedback therapy allows the patient to become more aware of how their body is functioning. This increased awareness can help the patient to improve control of their pelvic muscles.
    • Bladder Training: This involves training the bladder to hold urine longer. The training usually lasts 2 to 3 months.
    • Monitoring fluid intake: This may show that drinking a lot at certain times is the main cause of frequent urination.

    Diagnosis:

    • Your doctor will do tests to find out what causes you to urinate frequently. They will ask you a few questions, such as:
      • When did your symptoms start?
      • How often do you urinate?
      • What other symptoms are you experiencing?
      • Do you have unexpected urine leaks and in which situations?
    • Your doctor will likely ask you for a urine sample to look for infection, blood, or other abnormalities such as protein or sugar.
    • Your doctor will also do an exam of your abdomen and pelvis. This will likely include a pelvic exam and an evaluation of your urethra and vagina.
    • Other tests that may be helpful include:
      • Bladder scan: This is an ultrasound done on your bladder after you pass urine to see how much urine is left.
      • Cystoscopy: Using a lighted instrument, the doctor can take a closer look at the inside of the bladder and take tissue samples if necessary.
      • Urine test (urodynamic test): It involves a variety of tests that seek to see how the urinary system is working.

    When to visit a Doctor?

  • Make an appointment with your doctor if you urinate more often than usual and if:
    • There is no apparent cause, such as drinking more fluids, alcohol, or caffeine
    • The problem is interfering with your sleep or daily activities
    • You have other urinary problems or worrying symptoms
  • Contact your doctor as soon as possible if you have frequent urination accompanied by any of these signs or signs:
    • Blood in your urine
    • Red or dark brown urine
    • Painful urination
    • Pain in the side, lower abdomen, or groin
    • Difficulty urinating or emptying your bladder
    • A strong urge to urinate
    • Loss of bladder control
    • Fever
  • Urinary tract disorders can cause the above signs or symptoms, but so can other serious illnesses or health problems. Seek medical help to find out what is causing your frequent urination and how to treat it.
  • Home Remedies:

  • Frequent urination has been identified as one of the causes of urinary tract infection (UTI), insomnia (due to nocturia) and it is also considered a symptom of enlarged prostate in men.
  • These 5 Ayurvedic home remedies for frequent urination:
  • Sesame seeds:

  • Sesame seed is a rich source of minerals and many active ingredients that regulate the functions of the bladder. To take sesame for frequent urination, mix it with jaggery and eat it two or three times a day.
  • Amla:

  • Amla cleanses the bladder and also tones the bladder muscles to improve involuntary urination control. For best results, grind some Amla and extract the juice, mix it with honey. Consume this juice with a ripe banana two or three times a day to see good results.
  • Tulsi:

  • In some cases, frequent urination can be caused by a bladder infection. Tulsi works very effectively to stop bladder infections and help regulate urinary function. Early in the morning, crush 2-3 fresh leaves and take with a spoon of honey.
  • Cumin:

  • Cumin regulates the functions of the bladder and also prevents urinary tract infections. Take cumin in the form of tea. Boil 1 teaspoon in 2 cups of clean water until the water is reduced by half. Let cool, crush the seeds with a spoon and strain. You can drink this with a little honey twice a day instead of regular tea.
  • Reetha:

  • Aside from being great for the hair, Reetha is also effective in managing frequent urination. Soak reetha overnight and early the next morning, on an empty stomach, drink it for a week to relieve frequent urination.
  • Frequently Asked Questions:

  • Each woman follows her own schedule, but in general it is normal to pee 6-8 times every 24 hours. More than that, including urinating a lot at night (more than once) and you may have frequent urination.
  • Frequent urination can also become a habit. However, it could be a sign of kidney or ureteral problems, bladder problems, or another medical condition, like diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, pregnancy, or prostate problems.
  • Make an appointment with your physician if you urinate more frequently than usual and if, there is no apparent cause, such as drinking more fluids, alcohol or caffeine. The problem is interfering with your sleep or daily activities. You have other urinary problems or worrying signs.
  • Citations:

  • Frequent Urination - https://www.kidneyinternational-online.org/article/S0085-2538(15)53836-2/abstract
  • Frequent Urination - https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm000455z
  • Frequent Urination - https://europepmc.org/article/med/15643456