Multiple myeloma is a type of blood cancer. A plasma cell is a kind of white blood cell that produces antibodies that help the body fight diseases. These cells multiply abnormally when you have multiple myeloma. They release excessive protein (called immunoglobulin) into your bones and blood. It builds throughout the body and damages the organs. Plasma cells outweigh normal blood cells in the bones. They also release chemicals that cause other cells to attack the bones. The vulnerable points in the bones caused are called lytic lesions. Plasma cells pour out of your bone marrow and spread as the multiple myeloma progresses.
Symptoms of Multiple Myeloma
Individuals may not notice any symptoms at first. However, over time, you may have:
- Bone pain
- Weakness and fatigue
- Weight loss and loss of appetite
- Frequent infections
- Pathological Bone Fractures
- Weakness or numbness in your arms and legs.
When to see a doctor?
Multiple myeloma patients may exhibit various symptoms and signs that correlate with other diseases. If you experience symptoms like exhaustion, nausea, discomfort, high temperatureBone Pain , Spontaneous Bone Fractures, rash, or an increased pulse, you should consider meeting a doctor. Signs and symptoms, when combined, can assist explain a medical problem. Make an appointment with the doctor if you are concerned about any persistent signs and symptoms.
At Medicover, our team of oncologists can help deal with Multiple Myeloma with utmost excellence.
Causes and Risk Factors
Multiple myeloma's exact cause is unknown. It starts with a single abnormal plasma cell that rapidly multiplies in the bone marrow. The malignant myeloma cells that develop do not have a regular life cycle. They constantly divide rather than multiply and then die. This might overwhelm the body and restrict healthy cell production.
Risk Factors -
A risk factor increases a person's chances of developing a disease like cancer. Risk factors for various cancers vary. Here are some risk factors that may increase someone's chances of developing multiple myeloma.
As people grow older, their chances of acquiring multiple myeloma rise. Less than 1% of instances are diagnosed in people under the age of 35. Most patients diagnosed with this disease are above the age of 65.
Men are somewhat more likely than women to develop multiple myeloma.
Multiple myeloma seems to run in some families. You are more likely to get multiple myeloma if a sibling, sister, or parent has the disease.
As multiple myeloma advances, it can sometimes cause complications, including
As myeloma cells crowd out healthy plasma cells, your body loses the ability to fight infections.
Normal blood cells will be pushed out of your bone marrow and replaced by cancer cells, leading to anaemia and other blood problems.
Bone pain, weakened bones, and broken bones are common complications of multiple myeloma.
Reduced kidney function
Myeloma proteins are dangerous antibodies produced by myeloma cancer cells. They can harm the kidneys, impair kidney function, and finally lead to renal failure. Additionally, broken and deteriorating bones can raise calcium levels in the blood. Increased calcium levels(Hypercalcemia) can impair your kidneys' capacity to filter waste.
In most cases, risk factors for various forms of cancer are known. For example, smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer. This offers the possibility of prevention. Pre-malignancies in other cancers, such as cervical cancer, can be diagnosed early using a screening test and treated before they progress to invasive cancer.
There is no known method to prevent multiple myeloma in people who have monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance or solitary plasmacytomas. According to research, treating some high-risk smouldering multiple myeloma may prevent it from progressing to active multiple myeloma.
Doctors commonly detect multiple myeloma before any symptoms appear. Physical examinations, blood testing, and urine tests can all reveal indications of this condition. More tests will be performed if the doctor finds signs of myeloma without symptoms. The doctor can use the following tests to evaluate the stage of the condition and determine if patients need treatment.
Blood test and urine test:
Blood and urine tests are used to check for M proteins. These proteins may be caused by multiple myeloma or other conditions. Cancerous cells also make a protein called beta-2 microglobulin, which can be found in your blood. Blood tests can also assess the percentage of plasma cells increase LDL Levels in your bone marrow.
The following tests can be performed to assess whether multiple myeloma has caused bone damage:
Bone Marrow Biopsy:
During a biopsy, a doctor extracts a tiny sample of bone marrow, which is then tested in a lab for malignant cells.
Multiple myeloma is a chronic Disease. Patients sometimes require multiple treatments during this condition, especially when certain medications stop working and new alternatives should be introduced. Many medication therapies are available to manage symptoms, eradicate multiple myeloma cells, and delay disease spread. The doctor may suggest one or more treatments if you have multiple myeloma:
- Proteasome inhibitors prevent cancer cells from removing old proteins, causing them to die.
- Immunomodulatory medicines stimulate immune cells, allowing them to recognise and eliminate myeloma cells more effectively.
- Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC) interrupt the cell cycle and prevent cancer cells from growing and dividing.
- Monoclonal antibodies enhance your immune system by introducing antibodies that target particular proteins on myeloma cells.
- Chemotherapy uses potent drugs to eliminate quickly growing and dividing cells.
- Radiation treatment involves the administration of high-energy particles to the body or a specific bone location to destroy cancer cells and stop their growth.
- Targeted therapy targets particular defects in cancer cells. Cancer cells can be killed by specific medication therapies that prevent these abnormalities.
- A bone marrow transplant, also known as a stem cell transplant, is a procedure to replace your diseased bone marrow with healthy bone marrow.
- Corticosteroid drugs manage inflammation in the body by regulating the immune system. They also have anti-myeloma activity.
Lifestyle changes and Selfcare
If you have (or have had) multiple myeloma, you probably would want to know if there is any thing you can do to reduce your chances of the disease developing or returning, such as exercising, eating a certain diet, or taking nutritional supplements.
Adopting healthy behaviours like quitting smoking, eating healthily, regular physical activity, and maintaining a healthy weight may help, but there is no medical evidence that suggests that they will help stop the progression of the disease. However, we know that these adjustments can benefit your health in ways that go beyond your risk of myeloma or other malignancies.
Dos and Don’ts
If you or somebody close to you has multiple myeloma, you may already be aware of the various stages of the disease and treatment phases. It might range from 'watchful waiting' to aggressive therapy and disease remission. Managing melanoma's emotional and physical ups and downs can be difficult. When you have multiple myeloma, you can take charge of your body and enjoy life fully by making healthy choices, managing symptoms, and avoiding infections. Following the do's and don'ts listed below will help you manage it.
|Exercise regularly,||Eat unwashed fruits and vegetables,|
|Eat fresh and healthy fruits,||Smoke and drink alcohol.|
|Take medicines prescribed by the doctor||Ignore constant fatigue and take stress|
|Monitor unusual bleeding and Regular Followups with Doctor||Ignore scheduled therapies and treatments|
To fight this condition, take care of yourself and keep yourself strong internally while seeking adequate medical care.
Multiple Myeloma Care at Medicover Hospitals
At Medicover Hospitals, we have the most trusted group of doctors and healthcare professionals skilled in providing the best medical treatment to our patients with compassion and care. We use a holistic approach to treat Multiple Myeloma, with the active participation of healthcare professionals from several departments, each with their distinct speciality, to address the condition for comprehensive treatment, recovery, and wellbeing. Our diagnostic department is equipped with state-of-the-art technology and equipment to conduct the necessary investigations for diagnosing Multiple Myeloma. Our excellent team of Medical Oncologists and Haematologists use a systematic approach to diagnosing and treating the condition. They provide required medical treatment and rehabilitation therapy to treat this condition with great precision.