Kidney Cysts

The kidneys can develop spherical fluid-filled pockets called kidney cysts. There are different kinds of kidney cysts. A simple kidney cyst is an open or closed pocket with smooth, thin walls frequently filled with fluid. Inside the kidneys, one or more may develop. The most typical form of kidney cyst is a simple cyst, and benign cysts are simple. Polycystic kidney disease(PKD) is not related to simple kidney cysts. Your kidneys develop multiple cysts due to PKD, which runs in families. As a result tissues are inflamed causing kidney enlargement

Kidney failure may result from PKD as the kidneys become less effective over time . The development of cysts in the kidneys is also a symptom of acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD). It affects both adults and children with the end-stage renal disease but does not run in families like PKD, and ACKD has no symptoms.


The two types of kidney cysts are:

  • Simple Kidney Cysts
  • Polycystic Kidney Disease


Simple cysts don't have any symptoms. On the other hand, if the cyst gets infected, it could result in symptoms like

When to see a doctor?

If you experience symptoms, such as discomfort between the ribs and hip, stomach, blood in the urine, or dark urine, you should contact your doctor immediately. This might indicate that you have an infected or ruptured kidney cyst.


Although there are a few possible causes of simple cyst formation, the exact cause of kidney cysts is unknown:

  • Blockages inside the kidneys may prevent the organ from effectively collecting urine.
  • Growing renal cysts may be linked to the inadequate blood supply to the kidneys.
  • Tiny sacs may develop on the kidney's tubules and gradually fill with liquid.

They may split once they've accumulated fluid and develop into cysts.

Risk factors

Various factors can cause kidney cysts.


The risk of developing kidney cysts increases as you get older.


Certain genetic conditions, such as Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD), can increase the risk of developing kidney cysts.


High blood pressure can increase the risk of developing kidney cysts.

Kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease or a history of kidney disease can increase the risk of developing kidney cysts.


It can increase the risk of developing kidney cysts and other kidney problems.


Obesity: Being overweight can increase the risk of developing kidney cysts.

Family history

A family history of kidney cysts or kidney disease can increase the risk of developing kidney cysts.
It's important to note that some people with these risk factors may never develop kidney cysts, while others may develop them without having any of these risk factors.


Kidney cysts can lead to a number of complications, including:


Large cysts can cause discomfort or pain in the lower back, side, or abdomen.


Kidney cysts can cause bleeding, leading to the presence of blood in the urine (hematuria).


Cysts can become infected and cause fever, pain, and an increased risk of sepsis.


Large cysts can twist or turn on their axis, leading to pain and a reduced blood supply to the affected kidney.

High blood pressure

High blood pressure: Kidney cysts can cause high blood pressure, further damaging the kidneys and increasing the risk of heart disease.

Kidney failure

If the cysts grow too large and cause significant damage to the kidney, they can lead to kidney failure.


While rare, kidney cysts can become cancerous. It is essential to have any suspicious cysts evaluated by a medical professional.


Kidney Cysts can be prevented by:

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle

Eating a nutritious diet, regularly exercising, and avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.

Control medical conditions

Manage underlying medical conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes that can increase the risk of kidney cysts.

Regular check-ups

Get regular health screenings to detect potential kidney problems early.

Avoid exposure to toxins

Avoid environmental toxins and chemicals that can damage the kidneys and increase the risk of cysts.


Drink plenty of water to help flush out any waste and prevent the formation of kidney cysts.


Some medications, such as pain relievers, can increase the risk of kidney cysts. Consult with your doctor about alternative medications or treatments.

Limit painkillers

Overuse can damage the kidneys and increase the risk of developing kidney cysts.

Avoid high-protein diets

Consuming large amounts of protein can cause an excessive buildup of waste in the kidneys, increasing the risk of cysts.

Maintain a healthy weight

Obesity can increase the risk of developing kidney cysts and other related health problems.

Seek treatment for existing cysts

If you have existing kidney cysts, follow your doctor's recommendations for treatment and monitoring. Early treatment can prevent the cysts from growing and causing harm to your kidneys.


Usually, a medical history, physical examination, and imaging tests are used to identify kidney cysts. Some common tests used to detect kidney cysts are listed below:

  • Ultrasound: High-frequency sound waves are used in this non-invasive test to create images of the kidneys. It can easily detect kidney cysts and their size, location, and fluid content.
  • CT scan: This test uses X-rays and computer technology to produce detailed images of the kidneys and surrounding tissues. It can detect multiple cysts and help determine if any underlying conditions may be causing the cysts.
  • MRI: A strong magnet and radio waves are used in this procedure to provide precise pictures of the kidneys. It can help determine the size, shape, and location of kidney cysts and can also help identify any underlying conditions that may be causing the cysts.
  • Biopsy: To identify if a cyst is malignant or whether an underlying ailment is causing it, a biopsy may occasionally be required. A little piece of tissue is removed from the cyst and analyzed under a microscope. This is rarely done.
    In addition to these tests, a doctor may conduct urine and blood tests to check for any underlying health conditions causing kidney cysts.


Treatment for kidney cysts is necessary if the patient has issues due to them. Usually, the procedure is relatively simple. To confirm that cysts are the source of the symptoms and choose the most effective course of action, the doctor must do an examination. There are often two options, and the doctor will select a procedure based on the situation and the patient's condition. Surgery and sclerotherapy are options for cysts that are larger or causing symptoms.

  • Sclerotherapy: Sclerotherapy is used to drain the cyst. You will first get a local anesthetic to ensure you don't experience discomfort. Your doctor will insert a small needle through your skin into the cyst and drain all the fluid using ultrasonography as a guide. The cyst may then be filled with a solution by the doctor to stop it from developing; further, You'll likely go home on the same day as the procedure.
  • Surgery: A bigger cyst that impairs kidney function could require surgery to be removed. A general anesthetic will keep patients unconscious during the surgery. Cysts are frequently removed laparoscopically by surgeons using a number of small incisions. It means that a camera and small tools are employed throughout the procedure. The surgeon will drain the cyst, and the cyst's walls will cut or burn. After the procedure, you'll need to stay in the hospital for one or two days.

Do’s and Don’ts

Follow the mentioned do's and don'ts is given below to manage kidney cysts.

Drink plenty of water to flush out waste and toxins from your kidneys.Consume excessive alcohol
Exercise regularly to maintain a healthy weight and improve blood circulation.Take over-the-counter pain relievers frequently.
Follow a healthy diet that is low in salt, fat, and processed foods.Ignore symptoms such as pain or discomfort, leg swelling, or changes in urine color or output.
Take medications as prescribed by your doctor.Ignore follow-up appointments with your doctor
Regularly monitor and control any underlying medical conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure.Smoke

Care At Medicover

At Medicover Hospital, we have the best team of Urologists who can provide patients with the most comprehensive treatment for Kidney Cysts. Our highly skilled staff uses cutting-edge diagnostic methods and other advanced technologies to treat all types of kidney diseases and reduce recurrences. We start with the correct diagnosis and education of the patient for self-care and continue the treatment with scheduled follow-ups for better tracking and monitoring of the condition.


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