Treatment For Cervical Cancer at Medicover - Symptoms & Causes

Overview

Cervical cancer, commonly known as cancer of the cervix, first starts on the surface of the cervix. Abnormal growth of cells in the cervix leads to cancer. The crucial risk factor for cervical cancer is human papillomavirus infection, which can be stopped by HPV vaccination. Because cervical cancer grows slowly, it can generally be detected and treated before it becomes a significant threat. Thanks to better screening methods like pap smear tests, which can detect cancer early.

Cervical cancer is more common in women between 35 and 44 of age. However, more than 15% of new cases include women over 65, especially those who haven't been getting regular checkups. It is necessary to detect precancerous cells and treat them before they become cancerous.


Types

Both treatment and prognosis depend on the type of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer's main subtypes include:

  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Squamous cell carcinoma

Symptoms

  • Abnormal bleeding, such as after sex, between cycles, or after menopause
  • Vaginal discharge that has a distinct look or scent than normal
  • Pelvic discomfort
  • The need to urinate more often
  • Pain during urination

When To See A Doctor?

Schedule an appointment with the doctor if you observe a change that isn't usual for you or if you exhibit any possible cancer symptoms. Even if the symptoms might not be due to cancer, if you're worried about the symptoms, don't delay consulting your doctor.


Causes

Cervical cancer develops due to genetic changes (mutations) in healthy cervix-based cells. The abnormal DNA mutations cause cells to multiply uncontrollably and result in cancer. Cancer cells break from a tumor, infiltrate nearby tissues (metastasize) to other body parts. HPV is known to have a primary role in cervical cancer development, even if its precise cause is uncertain. Most individuals who test positive for HPV never get cancer; other factors such as genetics, the environment, and lifestyle choices also influence cancer development.


Risk Factors

The assumed cause of Alzheimer's disease is a combination of hereditary, environmental, and lifestyle factors and age-related brain changes. Following is a discussion of these factors:

HPV

This is a sexually transmitted virus. About 100 forms of HPV may exist, and at least 13 have been linked to cervical cancer.

Having Multiple Sexual Partners

Sexual contact with a person with HPV almost invariably results in the transfer of cancer-causing HPV strains. In general, women with several sexual partners are more likely to get HPV and their chance of getting cervical cancer rises.

Smoking

Smoking increases the risk of cervical and other cancers.

Weak Immune System

Those with HIV or AIDS and organ transplant patients have an increased chance of developing cervical cancer, requiring immunosuppressant drugs.

Birth Control Pills

Some commonly used contraceptive pills have a modest risk increase with long-term usage for women.

Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)

Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD): Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis all raise the chance of getting cervical cancer, which is another sexually transmitted disease (STD).

Family History of Cervical Cancer

Some individuals may have a history of cervical cancer. A woman's odds of getting cervical cancer are two to three times higher if her mother or sister had the condition.

Prevention

The cervical cancer preventive measures are:

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine: The link between the development of cervical cancer and some types of HPV is clear. If every female keeps to the current HPV vaccination programs, they could reduce the frequency of cervical cancer.

Practice Safe Sex

Using a condom during sex prevent STD’s and lower the chance of developing cervical cancer.

Cervical Screening

Regular cervical screening can allow a person to see early cancer symptoms and take action before the disease progresses or spreads too far.

Having Fewer Sexual Partners

The chance of passing the HPV virus increases with more sexual partners; therefore, practice safe sex practices.

Stopping Smoking

Cervical cancer is more likely to affect women who smoke and have HPV infection than healthy women.

Diagnosis

The enhanced use of the pap smear test and high-risk HPV testing is the most significant development in cervical cancer screening. Commonly, a woman's pelvic examination includes a Pap smear. If they spot anything unusual, the doctor will take out a bit of cervical tissue in a procedure called a biopsy.

Several types of cervical biopsies may be used to diagnose cervical cancer. Treatment for precancerous lesions may include specific treatments that can eliminate abnormal tissue from affected locations. Depending on the biopsy process, local or general anesthesia may be needed. Cervical biopsies are available in various forms, including

Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP)

A method for obtaining a tissue sample so it may be studied under a microscope using an electric wire loop.

Colposcopy

Colposcopy: During this procedure, the cervix is examined for abnormalities using a colposcope, a device with magnifying lenses. Usually, a biopsy is done if abnormal tissue is discovered.

Endocervical curettage

The endocervical canal's lining is scraped using a thin curette during this procedure. Usually, the colposcopic biopsy is accompanied by this kind of biopsy.

Cone biopsy

To extract a larger, more cone-shaped piece of tissue from the cervix is collected. It is either the cold knife cone biopsy method or the loop electrosurgical excision. Precancerous lesions and early malignancies may be treated using the cone biopsy method.

HPV DNA test

This examination finds cervical HPV infection. The cells are collected for a standard pap smear test, but it does not serve as a substitute for one. For additional testing, the HPV DNA test may be performed as a screening test for women over 30 or those with mildly abnormal Pap test results.


Treatment

The cervical cancer treatment includes:

Surgery

Surgery aims to remove as much cancer as possible. Sometimes the doctor can remove just the cervix area containing malignant cells. During surgery, the cervix and other pelvic organs may need to be removed for more advanced malignancy.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy: This cancer treatment uses high-energy x-rays or other radiation particles to destroy cancer cells and prevent them from growing.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy: Chemo drugs eradicate cancer cells throughout the body. After receiving chemotherapy for a while, the medication will be discontinued to give your body time to heal.


Dos and Don’ts

Cervical cancer, the second most frequent cancer in women, claims the lives of more than 2,00,000 women annually. Human Papillomavirus is the cause of cervical cancer (HPV). We have the power to defend our bodies against HPV by eating certain foods and avoiding others. Here are a few prevention tips for cervical cancer disease.

Do’s Don’ts
Do Pap test Eat processed and junk foods
Get vaccinated at the right time Ignore symptoms that are new & persistent.
Practice safe sex Eat raw or uncooked meat products
Eat zinc in the diet Consume foods and drinks that include high sugar.
Exercise Regularly Smoke cigarettes

Follow the Cervical cancer dos and don'ts to manage the symptoms and maintain a healthy lifestyle. Track the condition's progress, seek treatment as soon as possible and follow up with the doctor.



Care at Medicover Hospitals

At Medicover Hospitals, we have the most trusted group of oncologists, gynecologists, and healthcare specialists skilled at providing our patients with the best medical treatment with compassion and care. In order to address the condition for complete treatment, recovery, and wellbeing, we use a holistic approach with the actively participating of healthcare specialists from different departments, each with their own specific specialty. Modern technology and tools are available in our diagnostic section to carry out the required tests to identify Cervical cancer. Our excellent group of medical oncologists and gynecologists approaches the condition's diagnosis and treatment methodically. They deliver the necessary medical care and therapeutic rehabilitative services to effectively treat this illness.

Citations

https://www.cancer.gov/types/cervical
https://www.who.int/health-topics/cervical-cancer
https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/cervical-cancer/
https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/cervical-cancer
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK431093/
https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/cervical-cancer
https://www.mdanderson.org/cancer-types/cervical-cancer.html

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Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is cervical cancer, and where does it occur in the body?

Cervical cancer develops in the cervix, which is located at the top of the vagina and is the bottom section of the uterus (womb).

2. What are the common symptoms of cervical cancer?

Common symptoms include abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, pain during intercourse, and unusual vaginal discharge. However, early-stage cervical cancer may not present any symptoms.

3. What causes cervical cancer?

Persistent infection with high-risk strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. Other risk factors include smoking, a compromised immune system, and a family history of cervical cancer.

4. Is cervical cancer preventable, and how can it be prevented?

Cervical cancer is mainly prevented with routine screening procedures such as Pap screens and HPV vaccinations. These measures can detect and prevent the development of cervical cancer.

5. What are the risk factors for cervical cancer?

Risk factors include HPV infection, multiple sexual partners, smoking, a weakened immune system, early sexual activity, and a family history of cervical cancer.

6. How is cervical cancer diagnosed?

Cervical cancer is diagnosed through a combination of methods, including Pap smears, HPV testing, colposcopy, and biopsy. These tests help determine the presence and stage of cancer.

7. What are the different stages of cervical cancer, and how is each step treated?

Cervical cancer is staged from 0 to IV, with treatments ranging from surgery and radiation therapy for early stages to a combination of therapies for advanced settings. Treatment plans are personalized for each patient.

8. Can cervical cancer be treated successfully if detected early?

Yes, cervical cancer is highly treatable when detected at an early stage. Regular screenings and early intervention can lead to a successful outcome.

9. What are the treatment options for advanced cervical cancer?

Advanced cervical cancer may require a combination of treatments, including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy, depending on the stage and extent of the disease.