Extractions are done for a number of purposes, but the most common is to remove teeth that became unrecoverable due to cavities, periodontal disease, or dental trauma, particularly when the toothache is present. Sometimes impacted wisdom teeth that are stuck and cannot grow normally in the mouth cause recurring gum infections and can be removed when other conservative treatments have failed cleaning, antibiotics, and operculectomy.
The correct type of tooth extraction depends on the shape, size, position, and location of the tooth in the mouth. Dental surgeons can classify extractions as simple or surgical. A simple extraction is where a tooth is visible above the gum line and may be extracted by a dentist in one piece. Surgical removal is more difficult because it necessitates the removal of either gum tissue or bone or both. Wisdom teeth are the last to erupt and, in many cases, the first to undergo extraction due to their impacted status. This means that they have not completely come out of the gums.
Why Tooth Extraction
While many teens and some adults have wisdom teeth removed, there are other reasons that tooth extraction may be necessary for adulthood. A very common reason involves a tooth that is too damaged, from trauma or decay, to be repaired. And other reasons may include:
A Crowded Mouth
Dentists can extract teeth to prepare the mouth for orthodontic surgery. Orthodontics helps to fit your teeth correctly, which could be impossible if your teeth are too wide for your mouth. Similarly, if a tooth cannot break through the gum erupt your dentist may recommend that you extract it out.
If decay or damage spreads to the pulp, the center of the tooth that contains the nerves and blood vessels, bacteria from the mouth can enter the pulp and cause an infection. This can often be corrected with a root canal ECA, but if the infection is so severe that antibiotics or RCTs do not cure it, removal may be necessary to prevent the spread of infection.
The dental extraction procedure generally involves a consultation to review the specific situation of the patient, the administration of anesthesia, loosening, and extraction of the tooth. Post-procedure care is also important to improve patient outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.
It's crucial to check the patient's dental and medical records before starting a tooth extraction operation. There are some health conditions and medications that can change the suitability of the tooth extraction and procedure. For example, patients who have had a joint replacement (such as knee or hip), or who have certain problems with their heart (such as a heart murmur or replacement valves) may need prophylactic antibiotics before the procedure to help prevent infection. Medications used to change the consistency or clotting characteristics of the blood, such as warfarin, clopidogrel, or aspirin, may need to be stopped sometime before the procedure to reduce the risk of prolonged bleeding
For simple tooth extraction, a local anesthetic is generally injected around the nerve or nerves that are responsible for providing sensation to the tooth to be extracted. A numbing gel can be applied 1-2 minutes before injection to reduce discomfort associated with administering the injection. A shock-absorbing ligament called the periodontal ligament normally suspends the teeth from the bony socket of the tooth in the mouth. The first step in tooth extraction, therefore, is to free the tooth from the fibers of the periodontal ligament. This is usually done with an instrument called a peristome, which consists of a thin blade. If the tooth is visible, simple tooth extraction can be performed. Then an instrument called an elevator can be used to loosen the tooth further from its socket. Various types of elevators can be used, depending on the situation, to apply pressure to the tooth and dislocate it. When the tooth is loose enough, forceps are used to extract the tooth. This instrument is similar to a pair of pliers that can hold and pull the tooth, without great forces. If the tooth is not visible or is only partially visible, surgical tooth extraction can be performed. An incision will be made to expose the tooth through a surgical flap in this operation. The tooth may also need to be sectioned into pieces to avoid trauma to the surrounding nerves and tissues as they are extracted. Parts can be released from the socket with a lift, similar to the simple procedure. The fragments can then be removed one by one in a strict order, with the curved roots being the last to be removed.
After tooth extraction is complete, several factors need to be paid attention to reduce the risk of complications. For example, applying pressure to the tooth socket will help minimize bleeding. Specific post-tooth extraction care will vary slightly for each patient, depending on the individual's specific dental and medical situation.
A complication of tooth extraction is a dry socket. It is not an infection, it implies that the bone in the extraction area is exposed, either because the blood has not clotted or because the clot has dislodged.
A dry socket can cause severe, radiating pain that usually begins a few days after the procedure. It can also cause bad breath. If a person has severe pain that begins 2-3 days after surgery, they should speak to their dentist.
Treatment will consist of rinsing the area and placing medicated paste on the exposed bone to protect it.
Generally, people can prevent dry sockets by following their dentist's aftercare instructions, especially by not smoking after surgery.
Infection is another complication and can occur when bacteria infect the gum line in and around the cavity within 1 to 2 days after surgery.
If a person has not experienced complications during recovery, they may not need to follow up with their dentist. The stitches generally dissolve and do not need to be removed. A dentist or oral surgeon can schedule a 1-week follow-up appointment to check on how the extraction site is healing.
An individual will consult with their dentist or oral surgeon to determine the process before getting a tooth removed. During this consultation, the doctor will take a complete medical history. They will ask about past and ongoing health problems and treatments to make sure proper safety measures have been put in place. The dentist or oral surgeon will use a local anesthetic to relax the wound before cutting the tooth. Although the procedure is not painful, it can cause discomfort. A person can do several things to help speed up recovery. Ultimately, it is critical to avoid disturbing or irritating the extraction site. This will help the blood to clot and heal the wound.
Smoking, drinking, eating hard vegetables should be avoided after tooth extraction. Try soft and liquid food options like soups, mashed potatoes, yogurts, smoothies, shakes, etc. after tooth extraction. Hot drinks, spicy snacks, sodas, and other caffeinated beverages can be avoided.
Additionally, healing from an extraction takes longer and is often more painful than healing from a root canal, and removing the tooth means even more dental procedures and healing time to replace it later.