Menstrual Disorders


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By Medicover Hospitals / 11 Mar 2021
Home | symptoms | menstrual-disorders
  • Menstrual cycles often cause a variety of uncomfortable symptoms that lead to your menstruation. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) contains the most common problems, such as mild cramps and fatigue, but the symptoms usually disappear when you menstruate.
  • Article Context:

    1. What are Menstrual Disorders?
    2. Causes
    3. Diagnosis
    4. Treatment
    5. When to visit a Doctor?
    6. Prevention
    7. FAQ's

    What are Menstrual Disorders?

  • Menstrual disorders are disturbing physical and/or emotional symptoms just before and during menstruation, including heavy bleeding, missing periods, and unmanageable mood swings. Some women can easily go through their menstrual periods with little or no worry. Your periods come as hours, start and end at the same time almost every month, causing more or less discomfort. However, other women experience many physical and/or emotional symptoms just before and during menstruation. These signs will dramatically alter a woman's life, from excessive bleeding to missing cycles to uncontrollable mood changes. Most menstrual cycle problems have simple explanations, and there are a variety of treatment options to relieve your symptoms. If you sometimes feel overwhelmed, discuss symptoms with your healthcare provider. Once your symptoms have been accurately diagnosed, she can help you choose the best treatment to make your menstrual cycle tolerable.
  • Causes:

    Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS):

  • Symptoms include irritability, fatigue, cramps, chest pain, headache, back pain, acne, diarrhea, bloating, insomnia, anxiety, depression, stress, food cravings, and emotional mood swings. The symptoms of PMS can be different each month and different for each woman. Although PMS is uncomfortable, it is not a cause for concern. Symptoms usually disappear as soon as you menstruate.
  • Severe Periods:

  • In this condition, the bleeding is heavier than usual. You may also experience longer than average periods of 5-7 days. Heavy cycles are typically triggered by hormonal imbalances, especially estrogen and progesterone. Changes in food or exercise, menstrual infections, hypothyroidism, fibroids, puberty, and cervix inflammation are among the other triggers.
  • Painful Periods:

  • Some physical aches and cramps occur frequently during the onset of your period. However, some women experience severe pain during their period. During this period, pain is usually the result of an underlying medical condition, such as fibroids, endometriosis, and inflammatory diseases of the pelvis.
  • Lack of Menstruation:

  • Sometimes women do not menstruate. This condition is known as amenorrhea. There are two types of amenorrhea: primary and secondary.
    • Primary Amenorrhea:

    • In cases where a 16-year-old girl does not get her first period, it is known as primary amenorrhea. This may be due to a problem with the pituitary gland, a birth defect in the reproductive system, or a delay in puberty.
    • Secondary Amenorrhea:

    • If you miss your regular periods for 6 months or longer, this is known as secondary amenorrhea. The causes of secondary amenorrhea vary in adults and adolescents. In adolescent girls, it can be caused by sudden weight gain or loss, anorexia, suspension of birth control, ovarian cysts, pregnancy, or an overactive thyroid gland. In adults, it can be caused by pregnancy, premature ovarian failure, pelvic inflammatory disease, menopause, or interruption of birth control.


  • A diagnosis can only be certain if the doctor has ruled out other menstrual disorders, medical conditions, or medications that may cause or aggravate the condition.
  • Other diagnostic procedures may include:
    • Blood test
    • PAP test
    • Ultrasound: An imaging technique that creates an image of the pelvic organs using high-frequency sound waves.
    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): A diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radio frequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of the reproductive organs.
    • Laparoscopy: A small surgical procedure in which a laparoscope, a thin tube with a lens and a light, is placed in an incision in the abdominal wall. Using the laparoscope to view the pelvic and abdominal area, the doctor can detect abnormal growths.
    • Hysteroscopy: Visual examination of the canal of the cervix and the inside of the uterus using a hysteroscope inserted through the vagina.
    • Biopsy (endometrium): Tissue samples are removed from the lining of the uterus with a needle or during surgery to look for cancer or other abnormal cells.
    • Dilution and Horting (D&C): A common gynecological operation involves widening the cervical canal with a dilator and scraping the uterine cavity with a curette, a spoon-shaped surgical instrument used to remove tissue.


  • Treatment depends on the cause of your irregular periods and may require treatment for an underlying medical condition. One or more of the following treatments may be suggested by your doctor:
    • Oral contraceptives
    • Hormonal spirals
    • Thyroid medication
    • Metformin
    • Weight loss or weight gain
    • Exercise
    • Vitamin D supplements
  • Stress reduction techniques can also help, including:
    • Yoga
    • Meditation
    • Deep breathing
    • Job cuts and other lawsuits

    When to visit a Doctor?

  • Make an appointment to see your doctor if you experience any of the following symptoms:
    • Your periods stop longer than 3 months and you are not pregnant
    • Your periods suddenly become irregular
    • Has a period longer than 7 days
    • Need more than one pillow or tampon every hour or two
    • You develop severe pain during your period
    • If your periods are less than 21 days apart or more than 35 days apart, you should see a doctor
    • You experience seeing between periods
    • You have other symptoms like a strange discharge or a fever


    • Try to maintain a healthy lifestyle by exercising moderately and eating nutritious food. If you need to lose weight, do so gradually rather than using diets that drastically limit your calorie and food intake.
    • Make sure you get enough rest.
    • Practice relaxation and stress reduction techniques.
    • If you are an athlete, you need to cut back on long or strenuous exercise routines. Excessive physical activity can result in irregular periods.
    • Use birth control pills or other contraceptives as directed.
    • Change your tampons or sanitary napkin approximately every four to six hours to prevent.
    • Toxic shock syndrome and infections.
    • See a doctor for regular checkups.

    Frequently Asked Questions:

  • It is normal to have irregular periods during the first few years of menstruation, and sometimes even longer. But the only way to know if everything is okay is to visit your doctor or nurse. The length of a menstrual cycle can vary from girl to girl, but on average it is between 21 and 35 days.
    • Bleeding or detection between periods
    • Bleeding after sexual intercourse
    • Heavy bleeding during your period
    • Menstrual bleeding that lasts longer than normal
    • Bleeding after menopause
  • Having an irregular cycle, including missing periods, can contribute to infertility, as it means a woman does not ovulate frequently. Ovulation is when the ovary releases an egg. Irregular ovulation can be caused by many problems, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity, underweight, and thyroid problems.
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