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Misoprostol

misoprostol

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By Medicover Hospitals / 1 Feb 2021
Home | Medicine | Misoprostol

What is Misoprostol ?

  • Misoprostol is a drug used for poor uterine contraction, it is used to prevent and treat stomach ulcers, initiate labor, cause abortion, and treat postpartum bleeding. It is marketed under the Cytotec name. It is used alone, either with mifepristone or methotrexate, for abortions.
    1. Misoprostol Uses
    2. Misoprostol Side effects
    3. Precautions
    4. Overdose
    5. Misoprostol Storage
    6. Misoprostol vs Mifepristone
    7. Frequently Asked Questions
    8. Citations

    Misoprostol Uses:

  • This medication is used while you are taking NSAIDs (e.g. aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen) to prevent stomach ulcers, particularly if you are at risk of developing ulcers or have a history of ulcers. Misoprostol helps to reduce the risk of serious complications from ulcers, such as bleeding. This drug protects the lining of your stomach by reducing the amount of acid that comes into contact with it.
  • This medication is also used to terminate a pregnancy in combination with another drug (mifepristone) (abortion).
  • How to use

    • A patient data leaflet comes with this medicine. Read it thoroughly. Ask your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist if you have any questions concerning this drug.
    • The dosage is totally based on your medical conditions and your treatment responses.
    • Take it by mouth, usually four times a day, to minimize diarrhea and prevent stomach ulcers after meals and at bedtime, or as prescribed by your doctor.
    • Take it by mouth, exactly as directed by your doctor, if you are taking this abortion medication.
    • Your healthcare professional will insert it into your vagina if you are using this medication to start labor.
    • When using misoprostol, avoid taking magnesium-containing antacids because they may worsen the diarrhea it causes. Consult your physician or pharmacist if you need an antacid to help you choose a product.
    • Keep taking this medication for as long as you take NSAIDs for ulcer prevention. To get the most benefits from it, use this medication regularly.
    • If your condition continues to persist or worsens, please inform your doctor.

    Misoprostol Side Effects:

    • Diarrhea
    • Abdominal pain
    • Headache
    • Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis)
    • Anemia
    • Abnormal heartbeat
    • Chest pain
    • Gas (flatulence)
    • Gastrointestinal bleeding
    • Hearing loss
    • Heart attack (myocardial infarction)
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Constipation
    • Rupture of uterus
    • Blood clots
    • Stroke
    • Spotting
    • Menstrual cramps
    • Disruption in normal menstrual flow
    • Menstrual disorder
    • Painful periods
    • Aches/pains
    • Abnormal physical weakness
    • Fatigue
    • Fever
    • Chills
    • A sudden feeling of cold accompanied by a rise in temperature
    • Weight changes
    • Rash
    • Dermatitis, eczema
    • Hair loss
    • Pale appearance
    • Breast pain
    • Abnormal taste
    • Abnormal vision
    • Pink eye (conjunctivitis)
    • Ringing in the ears (tinnitus)
    • Earache
    • Upper respiratory tract infection
    • Bronchitis
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Pneumonia
    • Nose bleed
    • Swelling (edema)
    • Sweating
    • Low blood pressure(hypotension)
    • High blood pressure (hypertension)
    • Irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)
    • Inflammation of vein
    • Increased cardiac enzymes
    • Fainting (syncope)
    • Rectal disorders (hemorrhoids, abscesses, fissures or cancer)
    • Abnormal liver and gallbladder function
    • Inflammation of the gums (gingivitis)
    • Reflux
    • Difficulty swallowing
    • The increased blood level of amylase enzyme
    • Excess sugar in the urine
    • Inflammatory arthritis (gout)
    • The increased blood level of nitrogen
    • The abnormal large volume of dilute urine
    • Painful or difficult urination
    • Blood in the urine
    • Urinary tract infection
    • Anxiety
    • Loss of appetite
    • Depression
    • Drowsiness
    • Dizziness
    • Thirst
    • Impotence
    • Loss of sex drive (libido)
    • Numbness or weakness
    • Neurosis
    • Confusion
    • Joint pain
    • Muscle pain
    • Muscle cramps
    • Stiffness
    • Back pain
    • Low blood platelets (thrombocytopenia)
    • Rash with purple spots on the skin
    • Increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate

    Precautions:

    • Tell your doctor or pharmacist whether you are allergic to it, or whether you have any other allergies, before taking misoprostol
    • Tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history before using this drug, in particular: stomach/intestinal disorder (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease).
    • Alcohol and tobacco consumption on a daily basis can increase your risk of stomach bleeding. Limit drinks made with alcohol and avoid smoking.
    • An incomplete abortion can rarely occur if you are taking this drug in conjunction with mifepristone to end a pregnancy. Being closely watched by your doctor and holding your regular appointments to track your progress is very important for you. In case of an emergency, make sure to have specific instructions from your doctor on who to contact and what to do. If you experience some unlikely symptoms, such as severe/prolonged vaginal bleeding, signs of infection (including fever, chills), or fainting, anticipate vaginal bleeding after you take the combined drug, but inform your doctor right away.
    • Owing to potential damage to an unborn infant, this medicine must not be used during pregnancy to avoid stomach ulcers. Using successful birth control measures when taking misoprostol and for at least one month or one completed menstrual cycle after you quit taking it if you are of childbearing age. Inform your doctor right away if you become pregnant or think you might be pregnant.
    • It passes into breast milk with this drug. This medication is unlikely to affect a breastfeeding child, however. Before breastfeeding, consult the doctor.

    Interactions:

  • If you have been directed to use this medicine by your doctor, your doctor or pharmacist will already be aware of and will be watching you for, any possible drug interactions. Before consulting with your doctor, health care provider, or pharmacist first, do not continue, avoid, or alter the dosage of any medication. There are no known significant interactions of misoprostol with other drugs. There are no known significant interactions of misoprostol with other medicines. Misoprostol-moderate interactions include:
    • Croelemer
    • Eluxadoline
  • There are no known mild interactions of misoprostol with other drugs.
  • Missed Dose:

  • If you forgot to take a dose, take it as soon you remember.
  • Overdose:

  • Do not take too much. It may cause you severe health issues. Do not take two doses at one time, maintain the time gap between the doses.
  • Storage:

  • Keep away from sunlight and moisture in a dry position at or below 77 degrees F (25 degrees C). Unless directed to do so, do not flush drugs down the toilet or dump them into a drain. When it gets expired or no longer needed, properly discard this product.
  • Misoprostol vs Mifepristone:

    Misoprostol
    Mifepristone
    Formula: C22H38O5 Formula: C29H35NO2
    Brand name Cytotec Drug class- Antiprogestogen; Antiglucocorticoid
    Molar mass: 382.5 g/mol Molecular Weight: 429.6 g/mol
    Is a medicine used to prevent and treat stomach ulcers, start work, cause abortion, and treat postpartum bleeding due to poor contraction of the uterus. Is a medication that is used in combination with misoprostol to bring abortion during pregnancy.

    Frequently Asked Questions:

    In people who take some arthritis or pain medications, including aspirin, that can cause ulcers, misoprostol is used to avoid ulcers. It preserves the lining of the stomach and reduces the secretion of stomach acid.
    Fetal tissue and the uterine lining would be loosened by misoprostol. The uterus will contract and, within a few hours, the cervix will dilate. It will cause bleeding and cramping as the tissue moves through the body.
    Cramping and bleeding triggers this drug to drain the uterus. Cramping and bleeding typically begin 1-4 hours after misoprostol is taken in most individuals.
    For improved effectiveness, vaginal administration of misoprostol is recommended. The prescribed dose of misoprostol is vaginally injected at 800 mcg (4 200-mcg tablets). The results of the study have shown that vaginal administration is more successful than oral misoprostol usage.
    During pregnancy, Cytotec can cause the uterus to tear (uterine rupture). As the pregnancy progresses and if you have undergone surgery on the uterus, such as Cesarean delivery, the risk of uterine rupture increases. Extreme bleeding, hysterectomy, and/or maternal or fetal death may result in uterine rupture (tearing).
    To allow the tablets to dissolve, lie down for about 30 minutes after you insert the misoprostol tablets. You can push them back in again if you notice the tablets falling out, or call us for instructions on what to do.
    The side effects are common, typically lasting just 1 to 4 hours. If any of these side effects make you very uncomfortable, over-the-counter medicines can treat your symptoms. If over-the-counter treatments do not ease the symptoms, call them.
    Misoprostol therapy is an effective treatment with no adverse impact on potential fertility for women with a missed abortion in the first trimester and a favorable history of reproduction.

    Citations:

  • Misoprostol, https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejm200101043440107
  • Uses of Misoprostol,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2760893/