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Dexamethasone

Dexamethasone

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By Medicover Hospitals / 21 Dec 2020
Home | Medicine | Dexamethasone

What is Dexamethasone?

Dexamethasone is a type of treatment for corticosteroids. It is used in the treatment of many disorders, including rheumatic problems, a variety of skin diseases, extreme allergies, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, croup, brain swelling, eye pain after eye surgery, and tuberculosis antibiotics.

  1. Dexamethasone Uses
  2. Side effects
  3. Precautions
  4. Overdose
  5. Dexamethasone vs Prednisone
  6. Frequently Asked Questions
  7. Citations

What are the uses of Dexamethasone

Dexamethasone is used to treat problems such as: blood or hormonal disorders, arthritis, allergic reactions, skin infections, eye problems, respiratory problems, digestive disorders, cancer, and immune system disorders. It is sometimes used as a measure for adrenal gland dysfunction (Cushing syndrome).

Dexamethasone is a class of medications known as corticosteroids. It reduces the response of your immune system to different diseases to minimize symptoms such as swelling and allergic reactions.

How to use Dexamethasone:

Take this medication through the mouth as instructed by the doctor. Take food or milk to avoid stomach discomfort. Take the tablet with a full glass of water (8 ounces/240 milliliters) unless otherwise instructed by your doctor. If you are using this drug in liquid form, carefully weigh the dosage using a special measuring device/spoon. Do not use a household spoon because you may not have the right dosage.

If you take this drug once a day, take it before 9 AM in the morning. If you consume this medicine every other day or on a different schedule besides a daily one, it can help to mark your calendar with a reminder.

The dosage and duration of care are dependent on your medical condition and reaction to treatment. Take this drug exactly as prescribed. Carefully observe the dosing plan. Your doctor can try to reduce your dose slowly from time to time to prevent side effects.

Do not stop talking without consulting your doctor. Some conditions can worsen when the medication is unexpectedly stopped. You can also experience symptoms such as nausea, dizziness, fatigue, or muscle/joint pain. To avoid these symptoms while you stop taking this medication, your doctor can reduce your dose gradually. For more information, talk your doctor or pharmacist. Report any new or deteriorating symptoms immediately.


Side effects


  • Pain
  • Swelling of nose
  • Selling of face
  • Swelling of throat
  • Skin burning sensation
  • Skin issues
  • Rash or itchiness
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Weight loss
  • Weight gain
  • Weight gain
  • Dizziness
  • Tiredness
  • Rash
  • Itching
  • Increased sugar levels
  • Decrease in blood sugar level
  • Muscle pain
  • Allergic reactions
  • Cramps
  • Slow wound healing
  • Bleeding
  • Skin thinning
  • Mood changes
  • Stomach pain
  • Intestinal bleeding
  • Abdominal pain
  • Depression
  • euphoria

Precautions


  • Before consuming this drug, inform your doctor or pharmacist about all your medical history, especially: (hypercalcemia/hypervitaminosis D), malabsorption syndrome (trouble absorbing food), kidney disease, liver disease.
  • Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to dexamethasone or if you have any other reactions before taking dexamethasone. This product can contain inactive ingredients that may cause allergic reactions or other problems. Please ask your pharmacist or doctor for more information.
  • Infections (such as tuberculosis, herpes, fungal infections), kidney disease, liver disease, psychiatric or mood disorders (such as psychosis, anxiety, depression), mineral imbalances (such as low potassium/calcium levels in the blood), thyroid disease, stomach/intestinal complications (such as ulcers, ulcerative colitis, diverticulitis, unexplained diarrhea), high blood pressure, eye disease cardiac problems (such as heart problems) blood clots.
  • Using corticosteroid drugs for a very long period of time will make it more difficult for the body to respond to physical stress. Before getting surgery or emergency care, or if you have a serious illness or accident, tell the doctor or dentist that you have used or used this drug for the last 12 months. Tell your doctor right away if you have unusual/extreme tiredness or weight loss. If you've been taking this drug for a long time, bring a warning card or medical ID.
  • This medicine can mask the signs of infection. It may make you more likely to get infections, or it may make you worse off with any existing infections. Evitate contact with people who have infections that can spread to others (such as chickenpox, measles, flu). Consult your doctor if you have been exposed to any kind of infection.
  • This medicine can cause bleeding in the stomach. Regular use of alcohol while taking this medication can increase your risk of stomach bleeding. Avoid alcoholic drinks, please. Please consult your doctor.
  • May not get immunizations/vaccinations without your doctor's permission. Evitate interaction with people who have recently received live vaccines (such as flu vaccine inhaled through the nose).
  • The liquid type of this medicine may contain sugar and/or alcohol. Caution is recommended if you have diabetes, liver disease, or some other illness that allows you to minimize or eliminate these substances in your diet. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for safe use of this medication.
  • Older adults may be more vulnerable to the side effects of this drug, particularly bone loss/pain, stomach/intestinal bleeding, and mental/model changes (such as confusion).
  • If used for a long time, this medicine will delay the child's development. For more information and queries, contact your doctor or pharmacist. See your doctor periodically to check your child's height and development.
  • This medicine should only be used during pregnancy when specifically needed. It will occasionally affect an unborn child. Infants born to mothers who have been taking this drug for a long time may have hormonal problems. Tell your doctor immediately if you experience signs such as constant nausea/vomiting, extreme diarrhea, or fatigue in your infant.
  • It is not clear whether this drug is transferred into breast milk or not. Consult the doctor before breast-feeding.

Interactions


  • Drugs can change the way your drugs work
  • Can lead to some serious side effects.
  • Keep a record of all the medications you are using, the prescribed and non prescribed drugs as well as herbal products) and check them with your doctor and pharmacist.
  • Do not start, stop or change the dosage of any drug without your doctor's permission.
  • Consult a doctor before taking it.

There are some drugs which can interfere with this medication include- aldesleukin, drugs that may cause bleeding or swelling (including antiplatelet drugs such as clopidogrel, blood thinners such as dabigatran/warfarin, ANSIDs such as aspirin/celecoxib/ibuprofen), mifepristone.

This medicine can speed up the removal of other drugs from your body, which may affect how they function. Examples of drugs affected include some cancer drugs (such as dasatinib, lapatinib, sunitinib), praziquantel, rilpivirine, etc.

If your doctor has instructed you to take low-dose aspirin for heart attack or stroke prevention (usually at doses of 81-325 milligrams a day), you can continue taking aspirin until your doctor informs you differently. Consult your doctor for more information.

This medicine can interfere with certain laboratory tests (including skin tests) that may result in false test results. Make sure the lab staff and all the doctors know you're using this medicine.

Overdose:

If overdosed, this drug can be harmful. When someone has overdosed and has extreme signs such as passing out or respiratory problems can occur.

Missing Dose:

If you are using this product on a daily basis and skip a dose, use it as soon as you recall it. If it is near the next dose, skip the skipped dose. Using the next dose on a daily basis. Do Not double the dose to recover the missed dose.

Storage

Store it away from heat, light and moisture at room temperature. Don't store it in the toilet.

Do not flush the drug down the toilet or dump it into the sink unless told to do so. Disposal of this product is very important when it has expired or is no longer required. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more information about how to safely dispose of your product.

Note

Do not share with others

If this drug is taken for a longer period of time, lab and/or medical tests (such as blood mineral levels, blood glucose, full blood count, bone density tests, blood pressure, eye tests) should be conducted when you are taking this medicine.

This medicine can cause bone problems (osteoporosis) when taken for a prolonged period of time. iLifestyle improvements that can help reduce the risk of bone disorders include weight-bearing activity, having enough calcium and vitamin D, quitting smoking, and liting alcohol.

Basis Dexamethasone Prednisone
Drug class Corticosteroid (steroid), also known as a glucocorticoid (steroid), also known as a glucocorticoid
Generic name Generic Generic brand (Rayos— delayed-release tablets)
Brand name Decadron (no longer commercially available Deltasone (no longer commercially available),Rayos (delayed-release tablets)
Form Available in Tablet form, oral solution, injection, ophthalmic drops (alone and in combination with other ingredients), ophthalmic ointments (in combination with other ingredients) Form of Tablet and oral solution
Standard dosage Varies by indication and response to treatment Varies by indication and response to treatment
Treatment Short-term, varies from person to person Short-term period and in some patients it may take long-term under prescriber’s care
For For adults some times for children For adults some times for children

Frequently Asked Questions:

It provides relief to inflammation (like swelling, heat, redness, and pain) and is used to treat many types of arthritis, skin, blood issues, kidney, eye, thyroid, and intestinal disorders (e.g. colitis); extreme allergies; and asthma. Dexamethasone is also used for the treatment of some forms of cancer.
Dexamethasone is long-acting and is known to be a potent or powerful steroid. It's 25 times more potent than hydrocortisone. The initial dose of dexamethasone may vary from 0.75 to 9 mg daily depending on the condition being treated.
Dexamethasone is used to treat problems such as: blood or hormonal disorders, arthritis, allergic reactions, skin infections, eye problems, respiratory problems, digestive disorders, cancer, and immune system disorders. It is sometimes used as a measure for adrenal gland dysfunction (Cushing syndrome)
Low Dose- Overnight,8 a.m. Plasma cortisol is less than 1.8 micrograms per deciliter mcg/dL or 50 nanomoles per liter nmol/L. Standard—Urinary free cortisol on 3rd day less than 10 micrograms in a day (mcg/day) or 280 nmol/L.
6mg daily dose of dexamethasone for 10 days for adults. For kids suffering with croup, the oral dosage of 0.15 mg/kg of dexamethasone is 30 min, far earlier than the 4 h indicated by the Cochrane Collaboration.
Taking an overdose of Dexamethasone is not likely to cause you life-threatening effects. Long-term usage of high doses can lead to thinning of the skin, easy bruising/bleeding, changes in body fat (mostly in the face, back, neck and waist), increased acne or facial hair, menstrual problems, impotence.

Citations:

  • Dexamethasone, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482130/
  • Dexamethasone for Covid-19, https://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=505361890690497;res=IELHEA