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Cyclosporine

Cyclosporine

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By Medicover Hospitals / 19 April 2021
Home | Medicine | Cyclosporine

Cyclosporine

  • Cyclosporine is a prescription drug that comes in the form of an oral capsule, oral solution, and eye drops. It’s an injectable form that is only given by a doctor. The drug is available as various brand-name drugs called Gengraf, Neoral, and Sandimmune. It is an immunosuppressive drug that inhibits immune system activity. It's used to treat inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, as well as to avoid organ rejection after a transplant. The drug is a calcineurin inhibitor known for its immunomodulatory properties which prevent organ transplant rejection and treat various inflammatory and autoimmune conditions.
    1. Cyclosporine Uses
    2. Cyclosporine Side effects
    3. Precautions
    4. Dosage
    5. Interactions
    6. Warnings
    7. Storage
    8. Cyclosporine vs Tacrolimus
    9. Frequently Asked Questions
    10. Citations

    Cyclosporine Uses:

  • Cyclosporine is used in combination with other drugs to avoid transplant rejection in recipients of kidney, liver, or heart transplants. It is often used alone or in combination with methotrexate (Rheumatrex) to treat rheumatoid arthritis symptoms in patients that have not responded to methotrexate alone. Modified cyclosporine is also used to treat psoriasis in patients who have not responded to other treatments. Cyclosporine belongs to the class of medications called immunosuppressants. They function by lowering the immune system's operation.
  • Side Effects

  • The most common side effects of Cyclosporine are:
    • Headache
    • Diarrhea
    • Heartburn
    • Gas
    • Increased in hair growth on the face and arms
    • Acne
    • Burnings or tingling in the hands
    • Muscle or joint pain
    • Muscle cramps
    • Ear problems
    • Depression
    • Difficulty while falling asleep
  • Some of the major side effects of Cyclosporine are:
    • Unusual bleeding
    • Pale skin
    • Seizures
    • Rash
    • Purple blotches on the skin
    • Swelling of the hands, arms, and ankles
  • Cyclosporine can cause some serious side effects and can lead to some serious health problems. Talk with your doctor if you are having any serious problems.
  • Precautions

  • Before taking Cyclosporine talk with your doctor if you are allergic to it or any other medication-related to it. The drug may contain some inactive ingredients which will cause serious allergic reactions or some other serious problems. Before using the medication talk with your doctor if you have any medical history such as Kidney disease, Liver disease, High blood pressure, Cancer, skin lesions, radiation treatment, and mineral imbalance. The medication can make you more susceptible to infections or make existing infections worse. Avoid coming into contact with someone who has an illness that may spread to others (such as chickenpox, measles, flu). If you think you've been exposed to an infection or want more details, talk to your doctor.
  • How to use Cyclosporine?

  • Cyclosporine is available as a capsule and a liquid solution for oral administration. Once a day, cyclosporine is normally taken. Typically, cyclosporine is taken twice a day. It's important to take both forms of cyclosporine on a consistent basis. During your care, your doctor will most likely change your cyclosporine or cyclosporine (modified) dosage. If you need to take either form of cyclosporine to avoid transplant rejection, your doctor will likely start you on a high dose and progressively reduce it. If you're taking modified cyclosporine to treat rheumatoid arthritis or psoriasis, your doctor will most likely start you on a low dose and gradually raise it. If you have side effects from the drug, your doctor can reduce your dosage.
  • Dosage and Strength

  • Generic: Cyclosporine
    • Form: oral capsule (25 mg, 50 mg, and 100 mg)
  • Brand: Gengraf
    • Form: oral capsule (25 mg and 100 mg)
  • Brand: Neoral
    • Form: oral capsule (25 mg and 100 mg)

    Dosage for Rheumatoid Arthritis

  • Adult dosage (ages 18 years and older): 2.5 mg/ kg should be taken per day which should be divided into two doses i.e. 1.25 mg/kg per dose.
  • Dosage for Psoriasis

  • Adult dosage (ages 18 years and older): 2.5 mg/ kg should be taken per day which should be divided into two doses i.e. 1.25 mg/kg per dose.
  • Missed Dose

  • If you miss a dose, make sure to take it as soon as possible. If it’s time for the next dose, skip the missed dose. Avoid taking two doses at the same time. This can lead to some severe side effects.
  • Overdose

  • It's possible that you have dangerously high levels of the drug in your system. An overdose of this medication can cause the following symptoms:
    • Your skin or the eyes can turn yellow.
    • Swelling of arms, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs
  • Contact your doctor or seek advice if you think you've taken too much of this medication.
  • Interactions

  • Several other drugs may interfere with cyclosporine. Different experiences may have varying outcomes. Some, for example, can hinder a drug's efficacy and others can improve side effects. Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all prescriptions, over-the-counter, and other medications you're taking before starting cyclosporine. Also, let them know if you take any vitamins, herbs, or supplements. You may prevent future interactions by sharing this information. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any concerns about drug interactions that might concern you. Some drugs that can interact with Cyclosporine are Ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, ibuprofen, and ketoconazole.
  • Warnings for Some Serious Health Conditions

  • Kidney and Liver Disorders:
  • The drug can damage your kidneys and liver. High doses of cyclosporine can exacerbate kidney or liver problems.
  • Pregnant or Breastfeeding:
  • Talk with your doctor if you are pregnant. The medication should be only used during the pregnancy if the benefits outweigh the potential risk to the fetus.
  • Cyclosporine is excreted in breast milk and may have severe side effects. If you're breastfeeding, let your doctor know. Ethanol is present in Sandimmune capsules (alcohol). The presence of ethanol and other ingredients in the drug can pass into breast milk and cause serious side effects in a breastfed infant.
  • Storage

  • Direct contact with heat, air, and light may damage your medicines. Exposure to medicine may cause some harmful effects. The medicine must be kept in a safe place and out of children’s reach.
  • Mainly the drug should be kept at room temperature between 68ºF and 77ºF (20ºC and 25ºC).
  • Cyclosporine vs Tacrolimus

    Cyclosporine
    Tacrolimus
    Cyclosporine is a prescription drug that comes in the form of an oral capsule, oral solution, and eye drops. It’s an injectable form that is only given by a doctor. Tacrolimus ointment is a topical (skin-applied) medication used to treat atopic dermatitis (eczema).
    Cyclosporine is used in combination with other drugs to avoid transplant rejection in recipients of kidney, liver, or heart transplants. This medication is used with other medications for preventing rejection of kidney, heart, and liver transplants. It belongs to the class of medication called immunosuppressants.
    The most common side effects of Cyclosporine are:
    • Headache
    • Diarrhea
    • Heartburn
    • Gas
    Some of the common side effects of tacrolimus are:
    • Headache
    • Diarrhea
    • Constipation
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting

    Frequently Asked Questions:

    Cyclosporine is used in combination with other drugs to avoid transplant rejection in recipients of kidney, liver, or heart transplants. It is often used alone or in combination with methotrexate (Rheumatrex) to treat rheumatoid arthritis symptoms in patients that have not responded to methotrexate alone.
    Cyclosporine is a steroid-sparing agent which is safe to use topically for a prolonged period of time.
    The most common side effects of Cyclosporine are:
    • Headache
    • Diarrhea
    • Heartburn
    • Gas
    Increased in hair growth on the face and arms
    Taking Cyclosporine can lead to liver damage and liver failure especially if you are taking high doses.
    When taking cyclosporine or cyclosporine, stop consuming grapefruit juice or eating grapefruit (modified). Your doctor may recommend that you restrict your potassium intake.
    Cyclosporine suppresses the immune system's ability to function. It decreases the involvement of lymphocytes in the immune system, such as T helper cells and T suppressor cells, for a short period of time. Cyclosporine also decreases the amount of the enzyme interleukin-2 (IL-2) released by the body. IL-2 controls the function of white blood cells.

    Citations:

  • Cyclosporine, https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJM198912213212507
  • Cyclosporine eye drops in the treatment, https://www.apjai-journal.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/2AdoublemaskedcomparisonVol30No3September2012P177.pdf