Inflammation of the bladder is known as cystitis. When a part of the body gets itchy, red, or swollen, it is called inflammation. A urinary tract infection is the most common cause of cystitis (UTI). A urinary tract infection (UTI) occurs when bacteria enter the bladder or urethra and multiply. This might also happen if the body's normally existing microorganisms become unbalanced. Infection and inflammation are caused by these microorganisms. Infection is not usually the cause of cystitis. Inflammation can also be caused by some drugs and hygiene products. Cystitis treatment is dependent on the underlying cause. The majority of cystitis cases are acute or arise unexpectedly. Chronic or long-term causes of intermittent cystitis exist. Cystitis may affect anyone, but it affects women the most.

Types Of Cystitis

  • Bacterial cystitis
  • Drug-induced cystitis
  • Radiation cystitis
  • Foreign body cystitis
  • Chemical cystitis

  • Symptoms

    For cases of acute cystitis, the symptoms may include:

    The symptoms are the same for males as they are for females.

    In children, the symptoms may include

    Symptoms of Cystitis

    When To See a Doctor?

    If you experience signs and symptoms of a kidney infection, such as back or side discomfort, get medical care right away. Also, watch out for the following symptoms:

    • Back or side pain
    • Fever and chills
    • Nausea and vomiting.

    Call your doctor if you have urgent, frequent, or painful urination that lasts several hours or longer, or if you see blood in your urine. If you've previously been diagnosed with a UTI and are experiencing symptoms that are similar to those of a previous UTI, contact your doctor.

    Also, if your cystitis symptoms recur after you've finished a course of antibiotics, contact your doctor. It's possible that you'll require a different sort of medicine. Call your paediatrician if your kid begins to pee on the bed throughout the day.

    Doctors at Medicover can help you get the right treatment for any bladder infection and discomfort.


    The cause of cystitis determines the kind of cystitis treatment. They can be caused by the following reasons as well.

    • Urinary tract infection (UTI)
    • Ongoing use of a catheter
    • Exposure to radiation
    • Irritating hygiene products
    • Taking certain drugs
    Causes of Cystitis

    Risk factors

    Some factors can increase a woman's chances of developing cystitis:

    • Being sexually active
    • Using diaphragms with spermicide in them
    • Using tampons
    • Being past menopause
    • Being pregnant

    For both men and women, the following factors can increase the risk of cystitis:

    • A recent urinary tract infection (UTI)
    • Radiation or chemotherapy
    • Using a catheter
    • Having diabetes, kidney stones, or HIV
    • An injury to the spine
    • Something that affects the flow of pee

    In men, an enlarged prostate can increase the risk.


    Cystitis can sometimes lead to other health problems, particularly if bacteria enters the kidneys. This can result in a dangerous infection. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), vulvodynia, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, lupus, panic episodes, and pelvic floor dysfunction are all connected to cystitis. It can also cause blood to appear in the urine.

    • Back or side pain
    • Fever and chills
    • Nausea and vomiting.

    Cystitis can lead to a number of serious complications.


    Cystitis is hardly preventable, however, the following steps may help. If you have recurrent bladder infections, your doctor may consider the following:

    • Drink lots of water and other healthy beverages. If you're receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy, staying hydrated is very crucial, especially on treatment days.
    • Urinate at regular intervals. If you need to urinate, don't put off going to the bathroom.
    • After a bowel movement, wipe from front to back. This keeps germs from migrating from the anal area to the vagina and urethra.
    • Shower instead of taking a bath. Showering rather than bathing may help avoid infections if you're prone to them.
    • Wash the area surrounding the vaginal and anus canals gently. Do this on a daily basis, but don't use strong soaps or scrub too hard. The sensitive skin around these places is prone to irritation.
    • After intercourse, empty your bladder as quickly as feasible. To assist flush germs, drink a full glass of water.
    • Deodorant sprays and feminine items should not be used in the vaginal region. The urethra and bladder might be irritated by these products.


    Cystitis can be diagnosed in a variety of ways. Your doctor may request a urine sample to evaluate the source of your cystitis and rule out a urinary tract infection (UTI). To discover the origin of your symptoms, your doctor may do a cystoscopy or an imaging test. Your doctor may use:


    A cystoscope, a tiny tube with a camera inserted into your urethra by your doctor to check for issues or get a tissue sample for further testing (biopsy).


    Tumours, kidney stones, and other disorders can be detected using an ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI.

    An intravenous urogram (IVU)

    It's an X-ray that takes pictures of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder using contrast dye.

    Voiding cystourethrography

    A dye is injected into your bladder by your doctor to see if any urine travels backwards from the bladder to the kidneys.

    Retrograde urethrography

    Retrograde urethrography is a technique for examining the urethra from the This test employs contrast dye to detect urethral abnormalities.


    Which type of treatment you need will depend on the cause. Medication and surgery are the commonly suggested treatment methodologies


    Antibiotics are frequently used to treat bacterial cystitis. Medication can also be used to treat interstitial cystitis. The treatment for interstitial cystitis is determined by the aetiology.


    Cystitis can be treated with surgery, although it isn't always the doctor's first option. It's more frequent with chronic illnesses. A structural problem can sometimes be fixed with surgery.

    Home care

    These treatments can help you feel better. The following are some examples of common methods:

    • Using heating pads to relieve pain in your abdomen or back
    • Over-the-counter pain relievers, such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen
    • Sitz baths to cleanse the pelvic area

    Symptoms of cystitis can sometimes be managed at home without the use of medication. If antibiotics are required to treat a UTI, they should not be used instead. The following are some of the most common home treatment techniques:

    • Tablets or cranberry juice
    • Consuming enough fluids
    • Cotton underwear and loose-fitting clothing are recommended.
    • Avoid any foods or beverages that you believe aggravate your symptoms.

    Alternative Therapies

    Other nonsurgical options for cystitis exist. Stretching the bladder with water or gas might help relieve discomfort momentarily. Nerve stimulation can help ease pelvic discomfort and reduce the number of restroom trips. Medication can also assist cleanse the bladder when cystitis is induced by radiation or chemotherapy.

    Lifestyle and self-care

    Avoiding particular foods:

    Your doctor may advise you to avoid foods that irritate the symptoms. Alcohol, spicy foods, chocolate, and caffeine are among them. Citrus fruits and juices, tomatoes, and carbonated beverages are all examples.

    Retraining your bladder

    A bladder retraining therapy may be recommended by the doctor. Holding pee in for longer and longer periods of time is one example of this. The objective is to extend the bladder and improve its holding capacity.

    Managing stress

    The doctor may also teach you alternative stress-reduction techniques. Cystitis is not caused by stress. However, it has the potential to trigger the symptoms.

    Quitting smoking

    It's important to stop smoking. Cigarettes may exacerbate the symptoms. They irritate the bladder as well. Coughing all the time (smoker's cough) exerts strain on the stomach.

    Do’s and Don’ts

    People rarely discuss bladder health, although it affects everyone. Bladder infections can cause bladder inflammation (cystitis). If the Interstitial Cystitis (IC) pain is getting to you, try to reduce as much stress as possible. Stress does not cause IC, but it might trigger a flare if you already have it. Flares can be caused by both physical and emotional stress. Remember that every flare will subside, and stressing about it will only make things worse. So, by following these do's and don'ts, you can prevent the unfavourable consequences. The following are the guidelines:

    Even if you're not thirsty, drink plenty of water.Drink coffee, alcohol or caffeine until the infection is gone
    Take a shot of sugar-free cranberry juice.Eat spicy food
    Urinate after sexual intercourseAvoid the persistent symptoms
    Take antibiotics and other medications as prescribed by the doctor.Avoid daily exercise
    Maintain a healthy weight and avoid constipation.Smoke

    Cystitis Care at Medicover

    At Medicover, we have the best team of Urologists who provide the most comprehensive Cystitis care and management. To treat various urological problems and disorders, our experts use the most advanced diagnostic methods and technology. Our experts work closely with patients to monitor their health and treatment progress in order to achieve a faster and more sustained recovery.


    Make an appointment just in few minutes - Call Us Now

    Frequently Asked Questions

    1. What is cystitis?

    Cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder, often caused by a bacterial infection. It is a common urinary tract infection (UTI) that can lead to symptoms such as frequent urination, pain or burning during urination, and abdominal discomfort.

    2. What causes cystitis?

    Cystitis is primarily caused by the introduction of harmful bacteria into the urinary tract, most commonly Escherichia coli (E. coli). Other factors like sexual activity, urinary retention, and certain medical conditions can also contribute to cystitis.

    3. What are the common symptoms of cystitis?

    Typical symptoms include frequent urination, a strong urge to urinate, pain or burning sensation during urination, cloudy or bloody urine, lower abdominal pain, and sometimes a mild fever.

    4. Who is more prone to cystitis?

    Cystitis can affect anyone, but women are more susceptible due to their shorter urethra. Other risk factors include sexual activity, the use of certain birth control methods, urinary tract abnormalities, catheter use, weakened immune system, diabetes, and aging.

    5. How is cystitis diagnosed?

    Diagnosis often involves a medical history review, physical examination, and laboratory tests like urinalysis and urine culture to confirm the presence of bacteria. These tests help determine the appropriate treatment.

    6. What is the treatment for cystitis?

    The most common treatment for cystitis is a course of antibiotics to target the bacterial infection. Pain relievers and urinary tract analgesics may also be prescribed to alleviate discomfort during urination. Completing the full course of antibiotics is crucial for effective treatment.

    7. Can cystitis be prevented?

    Yes, several preventive measures can help reduce the risk of cystitis, such as staying well-hydrated, urinating regularly, practicing good hygiene, wiping from front to back after a bowel movement, emptying the bladder before and after sexual activity, avoiding irritating feminine hygiene products, and considering the use of cranberry products, which may help prevent UTIs in some individuals.

    8. When should I seek medical attention for cystitis?

    It's advisable to consult a healthcare provider if you experience symptoms of cystitis, especially if they persist or worsen. Prompt treatment can help prevent complications and ensure a quicker recovery.

    9. Can cystitis lead to more severe health issues?

    In most cases, cystitis is a relatively mild and manageable condition. However, if left untreated or if the infection spreads to the kidneys, it can lead to more severe health issues, such as kidney infections.

    10. Is cystitis contagious?

    No, cystitis itself is not contagious. It is typically caused by bacteria already present in the urinary tract or introduced through various factors, but it cannot be transmitted from person to person through casual contact.