Testicular Pain


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By Medicover Hospitals / 26 Feb 2021
Home | symptoms | testicular-pain
  • The testicles are egg-shaped reproductive organs in the scrotum. A sudden injury, inflammation, sexually transmitted diseases, or an emergency condition called testicular torsion may cause testicular pain (torsion). This may cause a dull ache in the scrotum condition, often along with swelling. Pressure in the testicles may also be a symptom of more severe conditions, such as cancer of the testicles.
  • Article Context:

    1. What Is Testicular Pain?
    2. Causes
    3. Diagnosis
    4. Treatment
    5. When to visit a Doctor?
    6. Prevention
    7. Home Remedies
    8. FAQ's

    What Is Testicular Pain?

  • Testicular pain refers to pain or irritation endured in either or both testicles. The pain can be sharp or chronic, dull, sharp, or a feeling of pain or discomfort.
  • You can sense it in one or both of the testicles if you have testicular pain. However, the pain may not be coming from the testicles. The pain may come from another part of your body, such as your stomach or groin. Referred pain is considered this form of pain.
  • Testicular pain can be acute (sudden and short) or chronic (gradual and long-lasting). Aside from the sharp pain of a sudden injury, your first symptom may be a dull ache that increases with time or activity. Testicular pain may be severe and there are many sensitive nerves in the testicles.
  • Causes:

  • Common conditions that cause testicular pain are:
  • Epididymitis:

  • Inflammation of the epididymis, which is the coiled tubes at the back of the testicles that store sperm. It makes the scrotum red and swollen and causes testicular pain on one side that gradually worsens. The other symptoms seen are painful urination, blood in the semen, and pain in the pelvic and lower abdominal region. It is most commonly caused by sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
  • Testicular Torsion:

  • It is a medical emergency that occurs when the testicles twist, causing the spermatic cord (which carries blood to the scrotum) to twist. This cuts off the testicles' blood flow which causes sudden pain and swelling.
  • Trauma:

  • Any injury during a fight, accident, or sport can lead to testicular pain. Any blunt wound can cause bruising and swelling of the testicle.
  • Inguinal Hernias:

  • It is a condition in which the intestines protrude through the groin area and slide into the scrotum. It causes swelling and testicular discomfort.
  • Epididymal Hypertension:

  • Epididymal Hypertension is known as blue balls, which cause pain and discomfort in the testicles because of a prolonged erection without orgasm. It is not a serious illness.
  • Orchitis:

  • Inflammation of the testicles is called orchitis. It can cause by bacteria or viruses and is commonly associated with mumps and STDs. It causes tenderness in the scrotum, painful urination, a swollen scrotum, and an enlarged prostate.
  • Urinary Tract Infection (UTI):

  • UTI in men causes painful urination, pain in the lower abdomen and near the groin, frequent urination, and blood in the urine.
  • Spermatocele:

  • Also called a spermatic or epididymal cyst, which is a benign cyst that occurs near the testicle. It cannot be seen visually but it can be felt. It doesn't cause any symptoms at first, but as the cyst grows, it causes pain and discomfort.
  • Varicocele:

  • That is the enlargement inside the scrotum of the veins. It causes a sharp to dull pain in the scrotum that is worse with standing and physical exertion. And the pain is relieved by lying on your back.
  • Hydrocele:

  • It is a swelling caused by the accumulation of fluid in the scrotum. It results from an injury or inflammation within the scrotum.
  • Prostatitis:

  • Inflammation of the prostate. The types are chronic prostatitis, acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. It becomes tender, sore, and inflamed in the prostate.
  • After Vasectomy:

  • After vasectomy (male sterilization surgery), a person may experience congestive epididymitis or sperm granuloma. Both conditions cause pain and discomfort.
  • Kidney Stones:

  • Kidney stones can cause referred pain in the scrotum.
  • Undescended Testicles:

  • It is when one or both testicles do not reach their normal place in the scrotum. In rare cases, an undescended testicle can twist and stop the blood supply, causing pain.
  • Testicular Cancer:

  • Testicular cancer rarely causes any pain. But where cancer explodes, it can cut off blood flow to the testicle or bleed, causing pain and tenderness.
  • Fournier's Gangrene:

  • It is a rare but serious bacterial infection that begins in the abdominal wall and spreads to the scrotum and penis, causing tissue death (gangrene). Causes testicular pain and tenderness.
  • Diabetic Neuropathy:

  • It allows the nerves of the scrotum to suffer damage.
  • Diagnosis:

  • To diagnose the underlying cause of testicular pain, your healthcare provider will take a complete history and physical exam. The physical exam will focus on examining the following areas:
    • Abdomen / groin
    • Penis
    • Testicles
    • Scrotum

    Imaging Tests:


  • A color Doppler testicular ultrasound is a non-invasive imaging study that can evaluate blood flow to the testicles, as well as the presence of testicular tumors, fluid collections, testicular rupture, and hernias. A kidney ultrasound can help evaluate kidney stones.
  • Radionuclide Imaging:

  • It is an imaging study that requires the intravenous administration of a radionuclide, useful for the evaluation of testicular torsion, as well as other causes of testicular pain. It is used much less often than ultrasound.
  • Kidney / ureter / bladder (KUB) CT scan or X-ray:

  • These particular imaging studies are sometimes ordered if there is a suspicion that testicular pain is caused by kidney stones or other conditions in the abdomen or pelvis.
  • Treatment:

  • Depending on the diagnosis, your doctor may suggest several treatment options. Treatment may include:
    • Pain relievers
    • If there is an infection, antibiotics are given
    • Surgery to unscrew the testicle (torsion of the testicle) or to correct the undescended testicle or to reduce fluid accumulation or to remove infected and dying tissue (gangrene) or to remove cancer
    • Nerve block and cord denervation
    • A surgical evaluation for possible correction of an undescended testicle

    When to visit a Doctor?

  • You should seek emergency medical attention if your testicular pain:
    • is caused by an injury that is painful or if swelling occurs after an hour
    • discoloration of the testicles
    • nausea
    • unusual, bloody, or cloudy discharge from the penis
    • pain that worsens over time
    • feel a lump in the scrotum
    • nausea
    • you have a fever
    • your scrotum is red, hot to the touch, or tender
    • have recently been in contact with someone who has mumps
  • Anyone with symptoms of testicular torsion should seek emergency medical attention. Without treatment, any condition that affects blood flow could result in the testicle's loss or the surrounding parts.
  • Home Remedies:

    • Avoid lifting heavy objects and doing vigorous exercise, as they can aggravate your pain.
    • Apply ice to reduce swelling and redness.
    • Applying heat with the help of a heating pad or a hot bath can soothe sore muscles.
    • Over-the-counter pain relievers like ibuprofen may temporarily relieve pain.
    • Wearing tight underwear helps limit movement and pain.
    • Stretching and strengthening exercises can relieve spasms.


    • wear a sports support to avoid injury to the testicles
    • practice safe sex, including condom use, during sexual intercourse
    • examine his testicles once a month for changes or lumps
    • empty the bladder when urinating to help prevent urinary tract infections

    Frequently Asked Questions:

  • Minor injuries can cause pain in the testicles to the area. However, if you have testicular pain, evaluate your symptoms.
  • Depending on the cause of your testicular pain, it can take up to 4 weeks for your condition to heal. Rest: Limit your activity until your pain subsides. Get more rest while you heal.
  • The pain may reside in the right or left testicle and be associated with testicular swelling, pain in the lower abdomen, and burning with urination. Acute pain in a testicle can be caused by testicular torsion, a groin injury, a bacterial infection, or prostatitis.
  • Citations:

  • Science Direct -
  • AUA Magazines -
  • Karger -