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Sulfonylurea

sulfonylurea

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By Medicover Hospitals / 11 Mar 2021
Home | Medicine | Sulfonylurea

What is Sulfonylurea?

  • Sulfonylurea belongs to the class of oral hypoglycemic agents, medications which helps to lower the level of blood glucose and it should be taken by people with Type 2 diabetes. The medication helps in increasing the secretion of insulin by the pancreas. The drugs operate by inducing the pancreas to produce more insulin. These are only one component of type 2 diabetes treatment plan and it should also include a healthy diet and regular exercise to help regulate blood sugar levels.
    1. Sulfonylurea Uses
    2. Sulfonylurea Side effects
    3. Precautions
    4. Overdose
    5. Warnings
    6. Storage
    7. Sulfonylurea vs Metformin
    8. Frequently Asked Questions
    9. Citations

    Sulfonylurea Uses:

  • Sulfonylurea is a class of medications that can be prescribed for the treatment of people who are having type 2 diabetes. The medication works by directly stimulating the cells in the pancreas for increasing the amount of insulin it produces. Insulin is the hormone that transfers glucose from the bloodstream into the cells of the body. The additional insulin helps to lower blood sugar levels. Sulfonylurea can also be combined with other types of diabetes medicines. The drugs bring down the blood glucose level by increasing the amount of insulin produced by the beta cells.
  • Sulfonylurea Side Effects:

  • Most common side effects of Sulfonylurea are:
    • Signs of low blood sugar
    • Hunger
    • Weight gain
    • Skin reactions
    • Upset stomach
    • Dark-coloured urine
    • Nausea
    • Heartburn
    • Rash
  • Sulfonylurea can cause some serious side effects and can lead to some serious health problems. If you are facing any of the above serious side effects. Talk with your doctor if you are having any serious problems.
  • Precautions:

    • Before taking Sulfonylurea, talk with your doctor if you are allergic to it or any other medications related to it. The product may contain some inactive ingredients which will cause serious allergic reactions or other serious problems. People with type 1 diabetes or diabetic ketoacidosis (a dangerous condition that can occur if high blood sugar is left untreated) should avoid sulfonylureas.
    • The medications can be ineffective for people who have liver or kidney problems. If this is an issue, talk with your doctor. Some of the drugs can make the skin more sensitive to sunlight. Blood sugar levels are usually affected by sulfonylureas. You should be aware of the signs and symptoms of high and low blood sugar, as well as what to do if you have them. Some diabetes medications can increase the risk of serious heart problems. Diabetes will damage your heart and other organs if you don't take care of it. These dangers should be discussed with your doctor.

    How to use Sulfonylureas?

  • Sulfonylureas are generally taken before a meal. It is usually taken once a day before breakfast or twice a day after a heavy meal. As a result, sulfonylureas should be taken 30 minutes before meals to maximise absorption, and their dose should be increased every two weeks if glycemic cannot be controlled. A low dose is recommended as a starting point (for example glibenclamide 2.5 mg or glimepiride 2 mg).
  • Missed Dose:

  • If the patient forgets to take a dose of sulfonylureas Tablet, the drug should be taken as soon as possible. However, if the next dose is due, the missed dose should be skipped. Avoid taking two doses at the same time as it can lead to some serious adverse effects.
  • Overdose:

  • Overdose of the drug can lead to some undesirable symptoms like dizziness and vomiting. Talk to your doctor immediately if you are facing any serious symptoms.
  • Warnings for Some Serious Health Condition:

  • Pregnancy & Breastfeeding:
  • Talk with your doctor if you are pregnant or while taking the medication if you become pregnant. There are minimal findings on whether to take the medication during pregnancy or not.
  • Sulfonylureas should not be taken while breastfeeding as it can pass into the breastmilk and can cause some serious side effects to the infants. If you are breastfeeding talk with your doctor before taking any kind of drugs.
  • Storage:

  • Direct contact with heat, air and light may damage your medicines. Exposure to medicine may cause some harmful effects. The medicine must be kept in a safe place and out of children’s reach. Mainly the drug should be kept at room temperature between 68ºF and 77ºF (20ºC and 25ºC).
  • Sulfonylurea vs Metformin:

    Sulfonylurea
    Metformin
    Sulfonylurea belongs to the class of oral hypoglycemic agents, medications which helps to lower the level of blood glucose and it should be taken by people with Type 2 diabetes. Metformin is an oral diabetes drug that helps to control blood sugar levels. The medication is used with diet and exercise to improve blood sugar control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    The medication works by directly stimulating the cells in the pancreas for increasing the amount of insulin it produces. Metformin is used with an appropriate diet and exercise program and possibly with other medicines to control high blood sugar levels. It is used for type 2 diabetic patients.
    Most common side effects of Sulfonylurea are:
    • Signs of low blood sugar
    • Hunger
    • Weight gain
    • Skin reactions
    Some of the common side effects of Metformin are:
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Stomach pain
    • Diarrhea

    Frequently Asked Questions:

    Glyburide belongs to the sulfonylurea drug class, while metformin belongs to the biguanide drug class. Glyburide lowers blood sugar by allowing the pancreas to release insulin (a natural substance required for the body's breakdown of sugar) and assisting the body's use of insulin.
    Most common side effects of Sulfonylurea are:
    • Signs of low blood sugar
    • Hunger
    • Weight gain
    • Skin reactions
    Sulfonylurea is a class of medications that can be prescribed for the treatment of people who are having type 2 diabetes. The medication works by directly stimulating the cells in the pancreas for increasing the amount of insulin it produces.
    Sulfonylureas can cause weight gain due to its ability to raise insulin levels and hence the utilisation of glucose and other metabolic fuels. GI (Gastrointestinal) upset, headaches, and hypersensitivity reactions are some of the other side effects.
    Sulfonylureas are one of the drug groups that contain sulfonamides in their chemical structure, allowing for theoretical cross-reactivity. Sulfonamide antibiotics are known to cause allergic reactions in 3–6% of the population.

    Citations:

  • Sulfonylureas, https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-0029-1211414
  • Sulfonylureas, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00331020