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Atropine

atropine

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By Medicover Hospitals / 25 Feb 2021
Home | Medicine | atropine

What is Atropine?

  • Atropine belongs to a class of medicines known as antimuscarinics or anticholinergics. Atropine occurs naturally and is extracted from the alkaloid plant belladonna. Atropine works by blocking a chemical called acetylcholine's actions. Atropine is widely used in clinical medicine and is available in various dosage forms, including an oral tablet, an injection solution, an ophthalmic solution, and an ophthalmic ointment.
    1. Atropine Uses
    2. Atropine Side effects
    3. Precautions
    4. Atropine vs Glycopyrrolate
    5. Frequently Asked Questions
    6. Citations

    Atropine Uses:

  • Atropine is used before the eye examinations and can treat some types of eye conditions. This belongs to the class of drugs which is known as anticholinergics. The eye drops works by widening the pupil of the eye. Atropine is a prescription medicine used to treat symptoms of low heart rate (bradycardia), to reduce preoperative salivation and bronchial secretions, or as an antidote to cholinergic or mushroom poisoning overdoses. Atropine may be used with other medications or alone.
  • Atropine Side effects:

  • Some of the common side effects of Atropine are:
    • Dry mouth
    • Blurred vision
    • Sensitivity to light
    • Lack of sweating
    • Dizziness
    • Nausea
    • Loss of balance
    • Hypersensitivity reactions
    • Rapid heart rate
  • Some of the serious side effects of Atropine are:
    • Irregular heart rate
    • High pressure in the eye
    • Abdominal blockage
    • Worsening urinary retention
    • Mucus on the airways
  • If you have a side effect that bothers you talk to your doctor. These are not all the Atropine's potential side effects. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
  • Precautions:

  • Before using Atropine talk with your doctor if you are allergic to it or any other medications. The product may contain some inactive ingredients which can cause some serious allergic reactions or some other serious problems.
  • Before using Atropine talk with your doctor if you are allergic to it or any other medications. The product may contain some inactive ingredients which can cause some serious allergic reactions or some other serious problems.
  • After applying Atropine the vision may become temporarily blurred. Avoid driving or using any kind of machinery which requires clear vision. The medication can make your eye more sensitive to light. Protect the eyes from bright light.
  • How to use Atropine?

  • Atropine comes as a solution and an eye ointment to add to the eyes. The drops are usually infused twice or four times a day. Usually, the ointment is applied one to three times a day. Try to use Atropine exactly as directed.
  • Atropine Eye drops:

    • Wash your hands with soap and water.
    • To make sure that it is not chipped or cracked, check the dropper tip.
    • Avoid touching the dropper tip against your eye or anything else; it is necessary to keep eye drops and droppers clean.
    • Pull down the lower lid of your eye with your index finger while tilting your head back, to form a pocket.
    • Hold with the other hand the dropper (tip down), as close to the eye as possible without touching it.
    • Brace your face against the remaining fingers of that hand.
    • Squeeze the dropper gently while looking up so that a single drop falls into the lower eyelid. From the lower eyelid, remove your index finger.
    • For 2 to 3 minutes, close your eyes and tip your head down as if you were looking at the floor. Try not to make your eyelids blink or squeeze.
    • Place a finger on the tear duct and apply 2-3 minutes of gentle pressure.
    • With a tissue, wipe any excess liquid from your face.
    • Wait at least 5 minutes before instilling the next drop if you have to use more than one drop in the same eye.
    • Replace the cap on the dropper bottle and tighten it. Do not wipe the dropper tip or rinse it.

    Atropine Ointments:

    • Wash your hands with soap and water.
    • Stop scratching your eye or something else with the tip of the tube. It is important to keep the ointment clean.
    • Slightly incline your head forward.
    • Keeping the tube between your thumb and index finger, without touching it, bring the tube as close to your eyelid as possible.
    • Brace your cheek or nose against the remaining fingers of that hand.
    • Pull the lower lip of your eye down with your other hand's index finger to form a pocket.
    • Place the lower lid and the eye in the pocket with a small amount of ointment. Unless otherwise instructed by your doctor, a 1/2-inch (1.25-centimetre) strip of an ointment is typically appropriate.
    • To allow the drug to be absorbed, gently close your eyes and hold them closed for 1 to 2 minutes.
    • Close the cap. Wipe off any excess ointment from the eyelids and lashes with a clean tissue.
    • With a tissue, wipe any excess liquid from your face.

    Missed Dose:

  • If you are on a daily schedule using this medication and skip a dose, use it as soon as you recall. If the time for the next dose is close, skip the skipped dose. At a normal time, use the next dose. To catch up, do not double the dose.
  • Overdose:

  • Overdose of a drug can be accidental. If you have used more than the prescribed Homatropine eye drops there is a chance of getting a harmful effect on your body’s functions. Overdose of a medicine can lead to some medical emergency.
  • Warnings for some serious Health Conditions:

  • Pregnancy: It may be dangerous to use Atropine Sulphate Injection during pregnancy. Although human studies are minimal, animal studies have shown adverse effects on developing babies. Before prescribing it to you, the doctor can weigh the benefits and any possible risks.
  • Breastfeeding: During breastfeeding, Atropine Sulphate Injection is safe to use. Human studies show that a large amount of the medication does not move into the breastmilk and is not toxic to the infant. The secretion of milk can decrease.
  • Storage

  • Direct contact with heat, air and light may damage your medicines. The exposure of medicine may cause some harmful effects. The medicine must be kept in a safe place and out of children’s reach. Mainly the drug should be kept at room temperature between 68ºF and 77ºF (20ºC and 25ºC).
  • Atropine vs Glycopyrrolate:

    Atropine
    Glycopyrrolate
    Atropine belongs to a class of medicines known as antimuscarinics or anticholinergics. Atropine occurs naturally and is extracted from the alkaloid plant belladonna. Glycopyrrolate is an anticholinergic that helps regulate conditions that require excessive development of stomach acid, such as peptic ulcers.
    Atropine is used before the eye examinations and can treat some types of eye conditions. This belongs to the class of drugs which is known as anticholinergics. To minimize excessive drooling caused by medical conditions, glycopyrrolate solution is used (such as cerebral palsy). This drug works by decreasing the amount of saliva that you generate.
    Some of the common side effects of Atropine are:
    • -Dry mouth
    • -Blurred vision
    • -Sensitivity to light
    • -Lack of sweating
    Some of the common side effects of Glycopyrrolate are:
    • -Blurred vision
    • -Vision problems
    • -Headache
    • -Drowsiness

    Frequently Asked Questions:

    By blocking the parasympathetic forces on the muscle, atropine raises the heart rate and enhances atrioventricular conduction.
    Usually, the drug of choice for symptomatic bradycardia is atropine. It raises the heart rate, which enhances hemodynamic stability, and is an anticholinergic and potent belladonna alkaloid. If atropine and temporary heart pacing don't boost hemodynamic control, epinephrine can be used as a secondary measure.
    Some of the common side effects of Atropine are:
    • -Dry mouth
    • -Blurred vision
    • -Sensitivity to light
    • -Lack of sweating
    Ingestion of as little as a few drops of atropine in the formulation of eye drops can lead to toxicity that is anticholinergic or, more precisely, antimuscarinic. Blocking of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at the central and peripheral muscarinic receptors results in antimuscarinic toxidrome.
    Atropine is used during surgery to help suppress saliva, mucus, or other secretions in the airway. Spasms in the liver, intestines, bladder, or other organs can also be handled with atropine. Atropine is also used for treating such forms of poisoning as an antidote.
    Tachycardia, pupil dilation, dry mouth, urinary retention, sweating inhibition (anhidrosis), blurred vision and constipation can produce the anticholinergic effects of atropine. Most of these side effects, however, manifest themselves only with excessive dosing or with repeated dosing.

    Citations:

  • Atropine, https://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/58/13/2754.short
  • Atropine side effects , https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0753332210000326