Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer begins when the normal cells in a testicle grow and divide in an uncontrolled manner, producing a mass called a malignant tumour. A malignant tumour can invade adjoining normal tissues and expand throughout the body via the lymphatic or circulatory systems (metastasis).

A majority of testicular cancer types arise in the sperm-producing cells called germ cells and are described as germ cell tumours. This cancer usually affects only one testicle.

Testicular cancer can affect a male gender at any age, but it is mostly found in males aged 15 to 44. This cancer is uncommon, and if diagnosed at an early stage, can be cured easily with proper treatment, thus decreasing the risk of death from this cancer.

The testicles (also called testes) are male glands and constitute a part of the male reproductive system. They produce the male hormone testosterone.

Types of testicular cancer

Testicular germ cell cancers fall into two primary categories:

  • Seminoma They are slow-growing and respond well to treatment. If it expands from the testicle, it can be easily treated with chemotherapy and radiation. Surgery is recommended in a few cases.
  • Non-seminoma The non-seminoma tumours can further be of the following four types:
    • Choriocarcinoma
    • Embryonal carcinoma
    • Yolk sac tumour
    • Teratoma

Non-seminoma tends to increase and metastasize at a faster rate than seminomas.

Symptoms of Testicular cancer

Testicular cancer may not have any symptoms. A lump or painless swelling in the testicles or a change in the size or shape of the testicle are the most typical symptoms.

Signs and symptoms of testicular cancer are as follows:

  • A lump or growth in one of the testicles
  • Scrotum heaviness
  • Pain in the abdomen or groin
  • Unexpected fluid buildup in the scrotum
  • A testicle or the scrotum may be uncomfortable or painful
  • Back pain

If diagnosed early, testicular cancer is one of the most curable cancers. Therefore, seeking timely treatment is important.

When to see a doctor?

Meet a urologist if you experience any pain, lumps or swelling in the testicles or groin area.

Consult our oncologists and urologists for more information and adequate treatment for testicular cancer.

In most of the cases, testicular cancer causes are unknown, but a few risk factors have been identified that can result in this cancer.

  • Undescended testicles (cryptorchidism)
  • Family history
  • Infertility
  • History of testicular cancer

Testicular cancer and injury to the testicles, are not associated with each other.


Few doctors recommend having regular self-examinations to detect any lump or solid mass in the testicles to identify the cancer at an early stage. People with family history of cancer, must get their cancer screening done as suggested by the doctor.

Talk to your doctor on how to take precautions.

Diagnosis of Testicular cancer

Testicular cancer can be diagnosed by performing certain pathology and radiology tests.

The tests include:

  • Ultrasound test In testicular ultrasound, the sound waves generate images of the scrotum and testicles. This USG test helps to confirm the presence of a mass.
  • Blood tests Blood tests are done to detect for the tumour markers beta human chorionic gonadotropin, alpha-fetoprotein, and lactate dehydrogenase.
  • Surgery A biopsy, in case of testicular cancer, is often not recommended, as cutting into a testicle can cause the cancer cells to spread to other body parts. Therefore, the testicle has to be removed in one piece if malignancy is strongly suspected.

Treatment for Testicular cancer

Following are the treatment modalities adopted for treating testicular cancer:

  • Surgery
    • Radical Inguinal Orchiectomy: It is the main treatment preferred for almost all stages and types of testicular cancer which removes the testicles.
    • Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection: It is done to remove nearby lymph nodes.
  • Radiation therapy Radiation therapy or radiotherapy for testicular cancer uses powerful doses of radiation to destroy malignant cells that have metastasized to lymph nodes.
  • >Chemotherapy This therapy is recommended to treat testicular cancer when the tumour cells have metastasized outside the testicle. It also decreases the risk of recurrence of cancer after the removal of the testicle.

Care at Medicover Hospitals

At Medicover hospitals, we have a multidisciplinary care team consisting of oncologists, urologists, and other specialists with years of experience. Our healthcare professionals strive to make the most comprehensive assessment of a patient’s health condition and follow it up with a full-range treatment plan. Utilising the latest medical diagnostic tools and technology and the most advanced cancer care approach, we ensure superior treatment outcomes for testicular cancer.


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Frequently Asked Questions

1. Is testicular cancer curable?

Yes, testicular cancer is often curable, especially when diagnosed and treated at an early stage. The cure rate is generally high, with a five-year survival rate of around 95% for all stages combined. The key to successful treatment is early detection and timely medical intervention.

2. Is testicular cancer life-threatening?

Testicular cancer can be life-threatening if left untreated or if it spreads to other parts of the body. However, when detected early, it is highly treatable, and most individuals can expect a full recovery.

3. How can testicular cancer start?

The exact cause of testicular cancer is not well understood, but it typically begins with the formation of abnormal cells in the testicles. Risk factors may include genetic predisposition, undescended testicles, and certain medical conditions.

4. Does testicular cancer affect sperm?

Testicular cancer and its treatment can affect sperm production. Some men may experience a temporary or permanent reduction in sperm count, which can affect fertility. If you're concerned about fertility, it's important to discuss preservation options with your healthcare provider before starting treatment.

5. What age is testicular cancer?

Testicular cancer primarily affects young and middle-aged men. The most common age range for diagnosis is between 15 and 44 years old, but it can occur at any age.

6. How is testicular cancer removed?

The primary treatment for testicular cancer is the surgical removal of the affected testicle, a procedure known as a radical orchiectomy. In some cases, additional treatments such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy may be necessary, depending on the cancer's stage and type.

7. Is testicular cancer painful?

Testicular cancer itself may not always cause pain, but some men may experience discomfort, a lump, or swelling in the testicle. Pain can also be a symptom if the cancer has spread. If you notice any changes or experience pain in the testicles, it's essential to seek medical evaluation.

8. Is testicular surgery expensive?

The cost of testicular cancer surgery can vary depending on factors such as your location, insurance coverage, and the specific surgical procedure required. Health insurance typically covers a significant portion of the expenses, making it more affordable for most patients. It's essential to discuss costs and insurance with your healthcare provider and insurer.

9. How normal is testicular cancer?

Testicular cancer is relatively rare compared to other types of cancer, but it is one of the most common cancers in young men. The incidence of testicular cancer has been on the rise, but with early detection and effective treatment, the prognosis is generally favorable.

10. Who is at risk for testicular cancer?

While testicular cancer can occur in any man, certain risk factors include a family history of the disease, an undescended testicle (cryptorchidism), and a history of testicular cancer in one testicle, which increases the risk for the other testicle. Regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are essential for those at higher risk.

11. How can I test for testicular cancer at home?

Self-examination is an important tool for detecting testicular cancer early. You can perform a testicular self-exam (TSE) at home by gently feeling each testicle for lumps, swelling, or changes in size or shape. If you notice anything unusual or concerning, seek medical attention promptly. Regular self-exams, along with routine medical check-ups, can aid in early detection and improved outcomes.

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