Osteopenia is weakening of the bones caused by a reduction of bone mineral density (BMD). It affects people over the age of 50, particularly women. Although there are no symptoms or indicators of osteoporosis, a painless screening test can be used to assess bone strength. Changing your lifestyle can help you maintain bone density and avoid osteoporosis.



Osteopenia normally does not comes by itself until it has increased to osteoporosis. Patients with osteopenia may have the following symptoms -

  • Bone discomfort
  • Bone weakness
  • Bone pain

When to see a doctor?

Talk to your healthcare provider if you witness any of the below conditions. You can also as for a bone density test in these cases.

  • Fracture of bone
  • Serious bone injury
  • Have bone pain
  • Have risk factors for bone loss

Get the best treatment for Osteopenia at Medicover Hospitals from the best Rheumatologists and orthopedists at Medicover Hospitals.

Causes and Risk Factors

Vitamin D deficiency causes osteopenia, which can lead to osteoporosis. It also causes osteomalacia, a painful bone disease that increases muscle weakness and raises the risk of falls and fractures. Living tissue makes up bones. A healthy person builds more bone than he or she loses until around the age of 30. However, after the age of 35, bones begin to break down quicker than they can be rebuilt. Bone density falls by less than 1% every year in healthy people throughout their lives.

Some factors can accelerate bone loss, resulting in osteopenia, such as:

  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Medications such as prednisone for cancer therapies, as well as heartburn, high blood pressure, and seizures medications.
  • Hormonal changes that occur during menopause.
  • Nutritional deficiencies, particularly a diet deficient in calcium and vitamin D.
  • Gastrointestinal surgery, which might impair the body's capacity to absorb essential nutrients and minerals.

Osteopenia Causes

Risk factors

Following are the risk factors for getting osteopenia-


People who eat a low-vitamin D, low-calcium diet are more likely to develop osteopenia. Excessive alcohol use can also reduce the ability of the bones to absorb calcium.


Calcium aids in the development of strong bones. Smoking reduces the amount of calcium that the bones can absorb, which can hasten bone loss.


It includes certain drugs, especially those taken over long periods of time, which might cause bone loss. Some anti-seizure medications, cancer treatments, and steroids, for example, can cause a loss of bone density.

Certain medical diseases

Diseases such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease, might also raise a person's risk of developing osteopenia.

Minerals such as phosphate and calcium are found in the bones, making them strong and dense. The more brittle the bones become, the more likely they are to break.


There are a few things you can do to keep your bones strong and avoid bone loss:

  • Smoking should be avoided.
  • Consume a nutritious, well-balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, calcium, and vitamins.
  • Every day, do exercise for at least 30-40 minutes. Walking, jogging, and other exercises as well as weight training, are particularly beneficial.
  • Daily calcium intake should be at least 1,200 mg.
  • Daily vitamin D intake should be between 800 and 1,000 IU.
  • Allow yourself to be exposed to the sun in the morning, which aids in the absorption of vitamin D into the bloodstream.
  • Alcohol should be avoided strictly.

Lifestyle changes and selfcare

Fractures in patients with low bone density are most commonly caused by falls. It's critical to avoid falls in addition to making good lifestyle choices to maintain bone density. Precautions may include the following:

  • Lit-up the dark area of your homes and gardens to avoid slipping of legs and chances of falling down.
  • Install handrails on stairs.
  • Get rid of any tripping hazards (for example, small furniture, rugs that turn up at the corners, items that are out of place).
  • Stagnant water and water spills should be cleaned as soon as possible.
  • Nonskid carpets should be used on the floors.
  • Consume proper calcium and vitamins.
  • Eat a healthy diet.


A healthcare provider will do the following to detect low bone mineral density:

  • Inquire about your family's medical history, especially about osteoporosis.
  • Inquire about your own medical history, such as medications you've used, medical issues you've had, and lifestyle decisions you've made, among other things.
  • Examine your physical condition.
  • Prescribe a bone density test.


Although there is no cure for osteopenia, it is critical to maintain bone density as much as possible. Simple techniques to keep your bones as healthy and strong as possible and avoid osteoporosis progression include:

  • Treatment with calcium.
  • Exercise
  • A balanced diet is essential
  • Supplements for vitamin D deficiency and sun exposure to aid vitamin D absorption.

In the event that you develop osteoporosis, your healthcare professional will want to track your bone density over time.

Dos and Don’ts

A person with Osteopenia has to follow sets of do’s and don’ts to manage it and its related symptom. A lot of precautions, dietary care, and self-care is needed to deal with the condition and its progression.

Do’s Don’ts
Eat healthy foods. Do high-impact exercises
Consume vitamin and calcium supplements. Bend too much.
Wear protective and comfortable footwear that avoids slipping or falling. Do activities that require twisting.
Take morning sunlight. Do smoking or consume alcohol.
Do exercise daily. Consume more salt and caffeine

Living with poor bone strength can be really difficult. Stay aware, informed, take all the precautions, and do follow up with your doctor for better care and treatment.

Osteopenia Care at Medicover Hospitals

At Medicover Hospitals, we have the most trusted team of doctors and medical experts who are experienced in providing excellent healthcare services to the patients with compassion and care. Our diagnostic department is equipped with modern technology and equipment to conduct the tests required for the diagnosis of Osteopenia based on which a dedicated treatment plan is designed. We have an excellent team of Rheumatologists, orthopedists and other specialists who diagnose and treat this condition with a multidisciplinary approach. They treat this condition with utmost precision that brings successful treatment outcomes.



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