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Nosebleed

nosebleed
By Medicover Hospitals / 29 Dec 2020
Home | symptoms | nosebleed

  • Bleeding from the nose, either spontaneous or caused by a pinch of the nose or trauma. Nosebleeds can have causes that are not due to an underlying disease. Examples include nasal dryness, nose pinching, or injury.
  • Article Context:

    1. What is nosebleed?
    2. Causes
    3. Diagnosis
    4. Treatment
    5. When to see a Doctor?
    6. Home Remedies
    7. FAQ's

    What is nosebleed?

    • Nosebleeds are common. They can be scary but rarely indicate a serious medical problem. The nose contains many blood vessels, located near the surface in the front and back of the nose. They are very fragile and bleed easily. Nosebleeds are common in adults and children aged 3 to 10 years.
    • There are two types of nosebleeds. A previous nosebleed occurs when the blood vessels in the front of the nose break and bleed.
    • Posterior nosebleeds occur in the back or the deepest part of the nose. In that case, blood runs through the back of the throat. Posterior nosebleeds can be dangerous.

    Causes:

  • There are many causes of nosebleeds. Fortunately, most are not serious. Dry air is the most common cause of nose bleeding. Dry air can be caused by hot climates with low humidity or by heated indoor air. Both environments cause the nasal membrane to dry out and crust or crack, and more likely to bleed when rubbed or picked or when blowing your nose.
  • Other common causes of nosebleeds include:
    • Pick your nose
    • Colds and sinusitis, especially episodes that cause repeated sneezing, coughing, and midges
    • Blow your nose with force
    • Insert an object into your nose
    • Injury to the nose or face
    • Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis
    • Anticoagulant drugs, such as aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, warfarin, and others
    • Cocaine and other drugs are inhaled through the nose
    • Chemical irritants
    • High altitudes. Lack of oxygen and drier as altitude increases
    • Deviation of the partition
    • Frequent use of nasal sprays and medicines to treat an itchy, runny, or stuffy nose. These antihistamines and decongestant drugs can dry out the nasal membranes
  • Other less common causes of nosebleeds include:
    • Alcohol consumption
    • Bleeding disorders, such as hemophilia or von Willebrand disease, or leukemia
    • Arterial hypertension
    • Atherosclerosis
    • Facial and nasal surgery
    • Nasal tumors
    • Nasal polyps
    • Immune thrombocytopenia
    • Leukemia
    • Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia
    • Pregnancy

    Diagnosis:

  • If you seek medical attention for a nosebleed, your doctor will perform a physical exam to determine the cause. They will check your nose for signs of a foreign object. They will also ask you questions about your medical history and current medications.
  • Tell your physician about any other symptoms you have and any recent injuries. There is no test to determine the cause of a nosebleed. However, your doctor can use diagnostic tests to find the cause. These tests include:
    • complete blood count (CBC)
    • partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
    • nasal endoscopy
    • CT scan of the nose
    • X-ray of the face and nose

    Treatment:

  • If a doctor suspects there is an underlying cause, such as hypertension, anemia, or a nasal fracture, he or she may perform further tests, such as checking blood pressure and pulse; They may also request an X-ray before recommending an appropriate treatment option.
  • There are a variety of treatment options that doctors have to offer; these include:
    • Nasal packing: fill the nose with tape gauze or special nasal sponges as far in as possible, putting pressure on the source of the bleeding.
    • Cauterization: a minor procedure that cauterizes the area where the bleeding is coming from to seal it off; it is used if the specific blood vessel can be identified. However, the region around the cautery sometimes causes to bleed.
    • Septum surgery: A surgical procedure to straighten a crooked septum, either from birth or from injury. This can decrease the occurrence of nosebleeds.
    • Ligation: A "last resort" surgical procedure that includes tying the ends of the identified blood vessels causing the bleeding. Sometimes even the artery from which the blood vessels come. If the source of the bleeding is further back, major surgery may be required.

    When to see a Doctor?

  • Most nosebleeds aren't serious and can stop on their own or by following self-care steps.
  • Consult an emergency doctor when your nose is bleeding:
    • After an injury, like a car accident
    • Involve a larger amount of blood than expected
    • Interfere with breathing
    • Lasts more than 30 minutes even with compression
    • Occurs in children up to 2 years old
  • Do not drive to the ER if you're losing a lot of blood. Call an emergency number or have someone drive you.
  • Talk to your doctor if you have frequent nosebleeds, even if you can stop them fairly easily. It is important to find out what causes frequent nosebleeds.
  • Home Remedies:

  • The following are some home remedies for nosebleeds:
    • Sit down and firmly pinch the soft parts of your nose, breath through your mouth
    • Lean forward to prevent blood from draining into your sinuses and throat, which can lead to inhalation of blood or nausea.
    • Sit upright so that your head is higher than your heart. This lowers blood pressure and delays further bleeding
    • Continue to apply pressure to the nose, leaning forward, and sitting upright for a minimum of 5 minutes and up to 20 minutes, so the blood clots. If bleeding continues for more than 20 minutes, immediately seek medical attention
    • Apply an ice pack to your nose and cheek to calm the area and avoid strenuous activity for the next several days.
    • People are advised to seek medical attention if they experience frequent nosebleeds, have suffered a head injury, or are taking anticoagulants (blood-thinning medications) and the bleeding does not stop

    Frequently Asked Questions:

  • Nosebleeds are not usually serious. However, frequent or heavy nosebleeds can show more serious health problems, such as high blood pressure or a blood clotting disorder, and should monitor. Excessive bleeding over a long period can also lead to more problems, such as anemia.
  • Nosebleed is rare, but a bleeding disorder can cause nosebleeds. If you have one, your blood may not clot properly. If your nosebleeds are difficult to stop or you have gum bleeds or minor cuts, see a doctor immediately or seek emergency care.
  • Nosebleeds are a common and generally harmless occurrence, although serious cases can occur. If people experience daily or frequent nosebleeds, it may be a side effect of the medication or a sign of an underlying condition.
  • For most healthy people, you should be able to stop a nosebleed at home in about 20 minutes or less.
  • The most common symptom of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is nosebleeds, but AVMs in the lungs or brain, which usually do not cause symptoms, can suddenly cause an ischemic stroke, brain abscess, or hemorrhagic stroke or In the lungs.
  • Citations:

  • https://patents.google.com/patent/US4820266A/en
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3275310/
  • https://www.bmj.com/content/328/7453/1416.1.short