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Divalproex

divalproex

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By Medicover Hospitals / 2 Feb 2021
Home | Medicine | Divalproex

What is Divalproex?

  • Divalproex sodium is a stable coordination compound used to treat manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder, epilepsy, and migraine headaches, consisting of sodium valproate and valproic acid. The following different brand names are available for Divalproex sodium: Depakote, Depakote ER, and Depakote Sprinkles.
    1. Divalproex Uses
    2. Divalproex Side effects
    3. Precautions
    4. Overdose
    5. Divalproex Storage
    6. Divalproex vs Lamictal (Lamotrigine)
    7. Frequently Asked Questions
    8. Citations

    Divalproex Uses:

  • This medication is used for the treatment of seizure disorders, certain psychiatric conditions, and for the prevention of migraine headaches (manic phase of bipolar disorder). It works by restoring the balance of certain substances in the brain that are natural (neurotransmitters).
  • How to use

    • Before you start taking divalproex sodium and each time you get a refill, read the Medication Guide and, if available, the Patient Information Leaflet that your pharmacist provides.
    • This medication is generally taken by mouth. If a stomach upset occurs, you can take it with food. Swallow the whole tablet. Do not crush or chew a tablet that might irritate the throat or mouth.
    • The dosage depends on your age, weight, medical condition, treatment response, and other medications that you might be taking. To get the most benefits from it, use this medication regularly.
    • Do not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor if it is used for seizures. If the drug is stopped suddenly, your condition may become worse. Your dose may need to be lowered progressively.
    • Acute migraine headaches are not relieved by Divalproex sodium. Take other drugs for acute attacks as advised by your physician.

    How it works

  • The oral tablet Divalproex sodium belongs to a class of medications called anti-epileptics. A class of medicines that functions in a similar manner. For the treatment of related conditions, these medications are used. This drug works by increasing the concentrations of a certain chemical in the brain, GABA, which decreases your nervous system's excitability. This helps to treat manic spells and seizures and to avoid migraine headaches.
  • Divalproex Side Effects:

    • Nausea
    • Headache
    • Weakness/lack of energy
    • Vomiting
    • Drowsiness
    • Tremor (shaking)
    • Dizziness
    • Abdominal pain
    • Diarrhea
    • Loss of appetite
    • Vision changes
    • Flu syndrome
    • Infection
    • Indigestion/heartburn
    • Loss of control of bodily movements
    • Rapid, involuntary eye movements
    • Fever
    • Mood swings
    • Thinking abnormal
    • Hair loss
    • Weight loss/weight changes
    • Constipation
    • Memory problems (amnesia)
    • Bronchitis
    • Runny or stuffy nose
    • Stomach upset
    • Changes in menstrual periods
    • Enlarged breasts
    • Agitation
    • Unusual or unpleasant taste in your mouth
    • Worsening depression
    • Suicidal thoughts or behavior
    • Unusual changes in mood or behavior
    • Cerebral pseudoatrophy
    • behavioral changes
    • Irritability
    • Hair texture change
    • Hair color change
    • Photosensitivity
    • Erythema multiforme
    • Toxic epidermal necrolysis
    • Stevens-Johnson syndrome
    • Elevated testosterone level
    • Hyperandrogenism
    • Nail and nail bed disorders
    • Weight gain

    Precautions:

    • Tell your doctor or pharmacist whether you are allergic to divalproex sodium before taking it, or to valproic acid or sodium valproate; or if you have some other allergies. There may be some or many kinds of inactive ingredients in this substance that may cause allergic reactions or other problems.
    • Use precaution with sharp objects such as razors and nail cutters to lower the risk of being cut, bruised, or hurt, and avoid behaviors such as contact sports.
    • Inform your doctor/pharmacist of all the medications you need before having surgery.
    • You can get dizzy or drowsy or blur your vision with this medication. You might become more dizzy or drowsy with alcohol or marijuana (cannabis). Until you can do it safely, do not drive, use tools, or do something that involves alertness or clear vision. To ban alcoholic drinks. If you are using marijuana, talk to your doctor about this (cannabis).
    • Older people may be more susceptible to side effects of this medicine, such as sleepiness, dizziness, unsteadiness, or trembling. The risk of falling can be enhanced by drowsiness, dizziness, and unsteadiness.
    • During pregnancy, this drug is not safe to use. An unborn baby could be affected.
    • It moves into breast milk with this drug. Although no exact research of harm to breastfeeding babies has been observed, still consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

    Interactions:

  • Some antidepressants (nortriptyline, amitriptyline, phenelzine), certain antibiotics (such as doripenem, carbapenem, imipenem), irinotecan, orlistat, mefloquine, other seizure drugs ( phenytoin, ethosuximide, rufinamide, lamotrigine, topiramate), rifampin, warfarin, vorinostat, zidovudine, are some products that may interact with this medicine.
  • If recommended by your doctor for particular medical purposes, such as heart attack or stroke prevention (usually these dosages are 81-325 milligrams a day), low-dose aspirin should be continued. If you use aspirin for some occasion, contact your doctor or pharmacist.
  • Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking any other medicines that make you drowsy, including alcohol, marijuana (cannabis), antihistamines (such as cetirizine, diphenhydramine), sleep or anxiety medications, muscle relaxants and opioid pain relievers.
  • Check all of your drugs for labels (such as allergy or cough-and-cold products) because they can contain drowsiness-causing ingredients.
  • Some lab tests may affect this medicine (e.g., urine ketones). Ensure that laboratory staff and your physicians are informed that you are using this drug.
  • Dosage forms and strengths

  • Dosages expressed as equivalents of valproic acid
  • -125mg
  • -250mg
  • -500mg
  • Tablet, extended-release feature (Depakote ER)
  • -250mg
  • -500mg
  • CAPSULE (Depakote Sprinkles)
  • -500mg
  • Missed Dose:

  • If you forgot to take a dose, take it as soon you remember.
  • Overdose:

  • Do not take too much. It may cause you severe health issues. Do not take two doses at one time, maintain the time gap between the doses.
  • Storage:

  • Keep away from sunlight and moisture in a dry position at or below 77 degrees F (25 degrees C). Unless directed to do so, do not flush drugs down the toilet or dump them into a drain. When it gets expired or no longer required or needed, properly discard this product.
  • Important information

    • This medication has alerts in black boxes. What are the most extreme Food and Drug Administration alerts (FDA). Black box alarms notify doctors and patients about potentially harmful drug results.
    • Liver damage warning: This medication can cause severe, life-threatening liver damage, especially in children younger than 2 years of age and those with certain inherited neurometabolic syndromes. During the first 6 months of treatment with this drug, the risk of severe liver injury may be higher. In certain situations, even after you stop taking the medication, liver damage can continue. Your doctor will closely watch you for signs and check your liver function before and during your treatment.
    • Warning about birth defects: This medication can cause serious damage to your fetus. Your baby is at risk for serious birth defects if you take this medication during pregnancy. These include birth defects that affect the heart, head, arms, legs, brain, spinal cord, and the opening where urine comes out. In the first month of pregnancy, these defects can happen before you know you're pregnant. This medication can also cause your baby's IQ and thought, learning, and emotional disabilities to decrease.
    • Warning about pancreatitis: This drug may cause pancreatitis (severe inflammation in your pancreas). This disorder can be fatal. This can occur soon after you begin treatment or several years after the medication has been used.

    Divalproex vs Lamictal (Lamotrigine):

    Divalproex
    Lamictal (Lamotrigine)
    Lowers the frequency of seizures, especially in the absence of seizures or complicated partial seizures. Efficient in decreasing seizure frequency in persons with epilepsy or Lennox-Gestaut syndrome.
    Depakote (Divalproex) is the first-line medication for people with bipolar disorder to improve their mood. Usually used for serious seizure disorders alongside other drugs.
    For the prevention of chronic migraines, Depakote (Divalproex) is beneficial. Works well for seizures with partial, tonic-clonic, and absence.
    If you have a difficult time swallowing, the sprinkle pill can be swallowed whole or can be opened up and combined with applesauce. Care for first-line bipolar disorder. Efficient long-term It prevents both depressive and manic episodes, but the effect on depression reduction is greater mood stabilization therapy.
    As a generic, Depakote (Divalproex) is available. They don't need regular blood checks.
    Dosage forms
    • Pill
    • Extended-release pill
    • Delayed-release pill
    Forms available
    • Pill
    • Extended-release
    • Chewable tablet
    • Dissolving tablet

    Frequently Asked Questions:

    This medication is used for the treatment of seizure disorders, certain psychiatric conditions, and for the prevention of migraine headaches (manic phase of bipolar disorder). It works by restoring the balance of certain substances in the brain that are natural (neurotransmitters).
    The oral tablet Divalproex sodium can cause drowsiness and dizziness. Until you know how this drug affects you, don't drive a car, use machinery, or do any things that need alertness. Other side effects can also be caused by this drug.
    A statistically and clinically relevant increase in panic attacks and quality of life indicators was also observed. The results indicate that divalproex sodium is effective in the care of patients who are refractory to traditional treatment with panic disorder and concomitant mood instability.
    Depakote does notl form or it is not habit-forming, but it is not recommended that you stp/quit using the medication until talking to your doctor, as signs of symptoms returning back may occur.
    Our findings indicate that, in the same general clinical level range as for mania, Divalproex has antidepressant properties.
    Sodium Divalproex works by growing the brain's volume of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The body naturally manufactures GABA. It's a chemical neurotransmitter or messenger of the brain. Erratic impulses can be triggered by faster electrical impulses in the brain than natural.

    Citations:

  • Divalproex, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1468-2982.1997.1702103.x
  • Efficacy of Divalproex,https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/368199