What is Incontinence?

Urinary incontinence is also known as loss of bladder control or urine leakage. The kidneys produce urine, store it in the bladder, and are pushed from your bladder through a tube known as the urethra when the muscles in the bladder contract. Sphincter muscles around the urethra relax at the same time to and the urine is excreted .

Incontinence can happen when the bladder muscles suddenly tighten, and the sphincter muscles are not strong enough to pinch the urethra shut. As a result, you could struggle to restrain a sudden, pressing urge to urinate .One may urinate under pressure while laughing, sneezing, or working out. Ageing , Menopause, hormonal imbalances and use of certain medications can also cause Urinary Incontinence. An issue with the nerves that regulate the bladder muscles and urethra can also result in urinary incontinence. Although there are medicines that can help you control this disease, incontinence is more likely to occur as you become older. People don't have to stop being active or allow incontinence to interfere with their lives. there is a greater likelihood that as you age, the chance of incontinence increases.


The different types of urinary incontinence are:

  • Stress incontinence
  • Overflow incontinence
  • Functional incontinence
  • Mixed incontinence
  • Urge incontinence


The common signs and symptoms of urinary incontinence include:

  • Urgent Need to rush to the restroom and losing urine if you do not get to the bathroom in time
  • Urine leakage during movement or exercise.
  • Urine leakage while coughing, sneezing or laughing.
  • Leakage of urine that began or continued after surgery.
  • Leakage of urine that causes embarrassment.
  • Constant feeling of wetness without the sensation of urine leakage.
  • The feeling of incomplete bladder emptying.

Urinary incontinencesymptoms might resemble other conditions or health issues. Always seek for a Healthcheckup for appropriate Diagnosis from your Healthcare Provider.

When to see a doctor?

Patients might find it awkward to bring up incontinence with their doctor. However, it's essential to seek medical attention if incontinence occurs frequently or negatively impacts the quality of life since urinary incontinence can:

  • Restrict your activities and limit your social interactions
  • Negatively impact your quality of life
  • Increase the risk of falls in older adults as they rush to the toilet
  • Indicate a more serious underlying condition


The most frequent causes of urinary incontinence are issues with the muscles and nerves that support the bladder's ability to contain or release pee. These muscles and nerves may have problems as a result of female-specific medical diseases like menopause, delivery, and pregnancy.

  • Overweight : Being overweight puts strain on the bladder, which may weaken the muscles over time. A weak bladder is incapable of storing as much pee.
  • Constipation : Constipation: This condition can pose problems with bladder control. The pelvic floor muscles and bladder might become strained or stressed due to constipation or trying too hard to urinate, and this results in muscle weakness and might lead to leakage or incontinence of the urine.
  • Nerve Damage : Damaged nerves may send the bladder signals at the wrong time or not at all.Injuries to the nerves during childbirth or from illnesses like diabetes and multiple sclerosis, as well as injuries to the muscles that regulate the bladder, urethra, or pelvic floor, may cause damage to these nerves.
  • Surgery : Any procedure that affects a woman's reproductive organs, such as a hysterectomy, has the possibility of damaging the muscles that support the pelvic floor, particularly if the uterus is removed. A woman's bladder muscles may not function properly if her pelvic floor muscles are injured, and urinary incontinence may result from this.
  • Heavy lifting : Repeated heavy lifting can strain the pelvic floor muscles, weakening them over time and causing UI.


Depending on the cause, urine incontinence and treatment may lead to consequences. These might include:

  • Urinary tract infections : Urinary tract infections Wet undergarments against the skin can cause UTIs, creating an environment where bacteria can grow.
  • Kidney damage : One could have renal problems or kidney failure in some situations where the urine flow is restricted.
  • Cellulitis : The germs that cause this skin infection can result in discomfort and edema.
  • Medication side effects : Depending on the medicine, drugs used to treat urinary incontinence may have adverse effects. Other possible side effects include nausea, hypertension, and dry mouth.
  • Catheter side effects : After a catheter is inserted, patients might have complications, including trauma and infection.
  • Mental health side effects : Urinary incontinence may lead to feelings of social isolation, depression, or anxiety.


The risk of urinary incontinence in women can be reduced by taking specific preventative and safety precautions, such as:

  • Performing regular pelvic floor exercises or Kegal exercises to strengthen the pelvic muscles following childbirth
  • Maintaining a healthy body weight.
  • Smoking causes a chronic cough, which strains the bladder muscles and causes urine incontinence.
  • Avoiding foods and beverages which causes irritation to the bladder such as caffeine may help prevent urinary incontinence in women.
  • Constipation, believed to be a significant contributor to urine incontinence, can be avoided with a fibre-rich diet.
  • Minimising alcohol consumption.


The doctor or other healthcare practitioner will probably ask about the symptoms during your visit. They'll probably want to know how long you've been incontinent, which types of incontinence you've experienced, and other details. They could inquire about the daily routine along with the regular diet and any medications or supplements you take. The symptoms and medical history will determine whether they request additional testing, such as

  • A bladder diary : The person records how much they drink when urination occurs, how much urine is produced, and the number of incontinence episodes.
  • Physical exam : The doctor may inspect the vagina and assess the pelvic floor muscle's strength
  • Urine analysis : Examinations are done to look for abnormalities and indications of infection.
  • Blood test : A blood test can be used to evaluate kidney function.
  • Post Void residual (PVR) measurement : Determines how much pee is still in the bladder after urinating.
  • Pelvic ultrasound : Provides an image and may help detect any abnormalities.
  • Stress test : During the stress test, the patient will be asked to apply sudden pressure as the doctor examines for urine loss .
  • Urodynamic testing : During a urodynamic test, the bladder's and the urinary sphincter muscle's tolerance to pressure is assessed.
  • Cystogram : A bladder picture is generated by an X-ray process. Cystoscopy : The urethra is probed using a little tube with a lens at one end. The doctor might see any irregularities in the urinary system.


While establishing a treatment plan for urinary incontinence, the healthcare provider will take into account a variety of different factors. Both the type of incontinence and how it impacts life are important factors. The doctor will also discuss the kind of treatment you are most comfortable undergoing. The doctor will discuss each option's advantages and disadvantages with you.

  • Bladder training : You might be recommended to perform specific activities that improve overall bladder control, such as pelvic floor exercises or bladder training.
  • Behaviour therapy : Depending on the cause, reducing daily fluid intake, changing the diet, or going to the toilet at set times before you feel the urge to go may assist you in managing bladder incontinence.
  • Condition management : Treating the underlying problem causing urine incontinence, such as constipation or a UTI, may also help the incontinence.
  • Medication : Medication may occasionally be helpful depending on the reason for your bladder incontinence. A category of medications called antimuscarinics is used to treat an overactive bladder.
  • Catheter placement : A doctor could advise an catheter to help manage overflow incontinence or, in certain situations, functional incontinence if the urine incontinence is chronic and negatively impacting the quality of life.
  • Weight loss : Considering losing weight can ease the strain on the bladder, a doctor could advise it to assist you in controlling your symptoms.
  • Absorbent undergarments : Minor leaks may be prevented using pads or absorbent undergarments, such as washable and reusable underwear or disposable panties.
  • Reducing bathroom barriers : If you're having trouble navigating to the bathroom, especially at night, consider maintaining a clear and well-lit path to help you get there as quickly as possible.

Dos and Don’ts

Although it is more frequently observed in women, urinary incontinence can affect anybody and is a Common issue. It occurs when the bladder accidentally discharges urine, and the problem emerges when control over the urinary sphincter weakens or diminishes as people grow older. Leakage can occur during stressful situations, like someone sneezing or coughing, during and after pregnancy, and it frequently occurs in conjunction with obesity. Certain foods and beverages might increase incontinence and worsen symptoms. Here, We'll discuss common dietary causes of pee incontinence in this section to aid folks in better understanding how to control their bladder. The mentioned do's and don'ts can assist in managing the symptoms of the condition.

Do’s Don’ts
Practice pelvic floor exercises Drink excessive amounts of alcohol
Take your medicine as directed. Eat fruits containing citrus
Avoid bladder irritants like acidic foods, caffeine, and alcohol Smoke
Avoid drinking excessive water before sleeping Drink excessively carbonated and caffeinated drinks
Take precautionary steps as advised by the doctor Eat highly fatty and processed foods

You may feel embarrassed due to unpleasant odours if you are suffering from incontinence. You may avoid going out with friends or family, leading to isolation and depression. It would be best if you see a urologist as soon as possible.

Care at Medicover Hospitals

At Medicover Women & Child ,we have the best group of urogynecologists and doctors equipped to provide patients with the utmost medical care while providing compassion and respect. Our diagnostic department is equipped with state-of-the-art technology and equipment to conduct the necessary investigations for diagnosing Urinary Incontinence in Women. Our excellent team comprises doctors and general physicians who use a systematic and multi-disciplinary approach to identify and treat the condition. They provide therapy for this condition with great precision offering desirable results.


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Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is urinary incontinence (UI)?

Urinary incontinence is a condition characterized by the involuntary leakage of urine. It can range from occasional leaks to complete loss of bladder control and can significantly impact a woman's quality of life.

2. What causes urinary incontinence in women?

Urinary incontinence can result from various factors, including weakened pelvic floor muscles (often due to childbirth or aging), hormonal changes (such as during menopause), urinary tract infections, neurological disorders, obesity, certain medications, and other medical conditions.

3. What are the treatment options for urinary incontinence?

Treatment depends on the type and severity of urinary incontinence. It might include lifestyle changes, pelvic floor exercises, bladder training, medication, medical devices (like pessaries), or surgery in severe cases.

4. What are the dangers of urinary incontinence?

Urinary incontinence can lead to skin irritation, urinary tract infections, and emotional distress due to embarrassment and restricted activities. It can also affect a person's overall quality of life. Seeking timely medical attention and adopting appropriate management strategies can help mitigate these risks.

5. Is urinary incontinence painful?

Urinary incontinence itself is not typically painful. However, it can cause discomfort if skin irritation or urinary tract infections occur due to prolonged exposure to moisture. The underlying conditions leading to incontinence, such as urinary tract infections or pelvic disorders, might cause pain, but the incontinence itself is mainly characterized by leakage.

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