What is a Blood Group Test?
Blood group testing is a technique for determining the kind of blood a person has. Blood typing ensures that you may safely donate blood or receive a blood transfusion. It is also used to determine whether you have the presence of Rh factor on the surface of your red blood cells.
The presence or absence of specific proteins on your red blood cells determines your blood type. These proteins are known as antigens. Your blood type (or blood group) is determined by the blood type that your parents handed down to you.
The ABO blood type method is commonly used to classify blood. The four primary blood types are as follows:
- Type A
- Type B
- Type AB
- Type O
- Can donate their blood to anyone
- Have O negative blood group
- Can accept blood from anyone
- Have AB positive blood group
Other names: Cross-matching; ABO blood typing; Rh typing; A blood type; ABO blood type; AB blood type; O blood type; Transfusion - blood typing
How is the test conducted?
A blood test is required. ABO typing is the test used to identify your blood type. Your blood is combined with antibodies against blood types A and B. The sample is next examined to see if the blood cells clump together. If blood cells clump together, it signifies that one of the antibodies interacted with the blood.
Back typing is the second step. The liquid portion of your blood (serum) is combined with blood that has been identified as type A or type B. Anti-B antibodies are present in people with type A blood. Anti-A antibodies are present in people with type B blood. Both kinds of antibodies are present in type O blood.
The two processes outlined above will precisely establish your blood type.
Rh typing is done in the same way as ABO typing is done. When blood typing is done to check if you have Rh factor on the surface of your red blood cells or not, the findings will be one of these:
- If you have this cell surface protein, you are Rh+ (positive).
- If you don't have this cell surface protein, you are Rh- (negative).
How to prepare for the test?
This test requires no extra preparation.
How the test will feel?
Some patients experience significant pain when the needle is placed to draw blood. Some merely feel a prick or sting. There may be some pain or minor bruises thereafter. This is a quick process and the effects go very soon.
Why is the test Performed?
Blood typing is performed to ensure that you can safely receive a blood transfusion or transplant or whenever your body requires etra blood. Your blood type must be identical to the blood type of the donor. If the blood types do not correspond:
- The donated red blood cells will be recognized as foreign by your immune system.
- Antibodies will form against the donor red blood cells and attack them.
Your blood and the donor's blood may not match in two ways:
- An incompatibility between blood types A, B, AB, and O. This is the most typical type of mismatch. In most situations, the immunological reaction is extremely severe.
- Rh factor may not be compatible.
During pregnancy, blood group test is crucial. Preventing severe anemia and jaundice in newborns can be avoided with careful testing.
You will be informed which ABO blood type you have such as:
- Type A blood
- Type B blood
- Type AB blood
- Type O blood
You will also be informed whether the body has Rh-positive blood or Rh-negative blood.
Based on your results, your health care providers can determine which type of blood you can safely receive:
- If you have type A blood, you can only receive types A and O blood.
- If you have type B blood, you can only receive types B and O blood.
- If you have type AB blood, you can receive types A, B, AB, and O blood.
- If you have type O blood, you can only receive type O blood.
- If you are Rh+, you can receive Rh+ or Rh- blood.
- If you are Rh-, you can only receive Rh- blood.
Type O blood can be given to anyone with any blood type. That is why people with type O blood are called universal blood donors.
There is no risk involved with having your blood taken. Some people feel little pain or discomfort but usually, it goes soon.
Apart from the main antigens, there are several more (A, B, and Rh). Several tiny ones are not found frequently during blood typing. Even if they are not found, you may have an allergic reaction to specific blood types if the A, B, and Rh antigens are matched.
Cross-matching, followed by a Coombs test, can aid in detecting these small antigens. Unless, in emergency instances, it is done before transfusions.