What is Low Urine Output?
Low urine output in medical terms is Oliguria. Oliguria is known to be less than 400 milliliters of urine output, which is less than approximately 13.5 ounces over 24 hours. Anuria is a disorder where urine does not exist. Anuria is known to be less than 50 milliliters, or less than around 1.7 ounces of urine, over 24 hours. Low urine output, or no urine output, occurs in the setting of Kidney failure and urinary obstruction. As the kidneys fail or are compromised in their ability to function, the kidneys lose the ability to regulate fluids and electrolytes and to remove waste products from the body. Also, it decreases the production of red blood cells (which is normally driven by a substance produced in the kidneys). Low urine output also occurs when there is a decreased blood supply to the kidney, as occurs with dehydration or excessive blood loss. Obstruction of the outflow of urine, whether because of tumors, an enlarged prostate, or bladder problems, can also reduce urine output. Kidney failure can cause decreased urine production that is either acute (as with toxins or sepsis) or chronic (as with diabetes). Chronic kidney failure develops over time and can be the result of poorly controlled diabetes or hypertension.