What is Transurethral Resection of Prostate?

Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) is a surgical procedure commonly performed to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a non-cancerous prostate gland enlargement. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. When the prostate gland enlarges, it can obstruct urine flow, causing urinary symptoms such as frequent urination, difficulty starting and stopping urination, weak urine stream, and the need to urinate at night.

Understanding of TURP (Transurethral Resection of Prostate)

TURP is a minimally invasive procedure that aims to relieve these urinary symptoms by removing excess prostate tissue blocking the urethra. During the procedure, a thin, tube-like instrument called a resectoscope is inserted through the urethra, allowing the surgeon to access the prostate gland without needing external incisions. The resectoscope contains a light source, camera, and surgical instruments to cut, vaporize, or remove the obstructing tissue.

The procedure is performed under general or spinal anaesthesia, and the surgeon uses the resectoscope to carefully trim away the excess prostate tissue, creating a wider passage for urine to flow. As the tissue is removed, it is flushed into the bladder and rinsed out of the body. TURP aims to alleviate urinary symptoms, improve urine flow, and enhance the overall quality of life for men suffering from BPH.

TURP is a well-established and effective treatment for BPH, but like any surgical procedure, it carries risks and potential complications, including bleeding, infection, urinary incontinence, and erectile dysfunction. The recovery period after TURP typically involves a short hospital stay and some postoperative discomfort, which can be managed with pain medication. Patients are advised to follow their surgeon's instructions for proper healing and gradually resume normal activities.

It's important for individuals considering TURP to have a thorough discussion with their urologist or surgeon about the potential benefits, risks, and alternatives. The decision to undergo TURP should be based on a comprehensive evaluation of the patient's medical history, the severity of their symptoms, and their overall health.

Steps involved in TURP (Transurethral resection of prostate) surgery

Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) is a surgical procedure performed to alleviate urinary symptoms caused by an enlarged prostate gland, a condition known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). During the TURP surgery, the surgeon uses specialized instruments to remove excess prostate tissue obstructing the urethra and causing urinary flow problems. Here's an overview of the steps involved in a TURP surgery:

  • Anesthesia: The surgery is typically performed under general anaesthesia or spinal anaesthesia to ensure the patient is comfortable and pain-free during the procedure.
  • Insertion of the Resectoscope: A resectoscope, a thin tube-like instrument with a light source, camera, and surgical instruments, is inserted through the urethra and advanced to the prostate gland. The resectoscope allows the surgeon to visualize the prostate gland and perform the procedure without external incisions.
  • Visualization and Resection: The surgeon uses the resectoscope's camera to view the prostate gland and the obstructing tissue. Surgical instruments attached to the resectoscope are used to remove or trim the excess prostate tissue blocking the urethra.
  • Removal of Tissue: The obstructing tissue is removed in small pieces. The tissue is often cut or vaporized using specialized tools and electrocautery to minimize bleeding.
  • Irrigation and Drainage: As tissue is removed, it may be irrigated into the bladder and flushed out of the body. The surgeon also ensures the prostate capsule is smooth and free of any sharp edges to prevent future complications.
  • Completion and Catheter Placement: Once the excess tissue is removed, a catheter is inserted through the urethra and into the bladder. The catheter helps drain urine from the bladder while allowing the surgical site to heal.
  • Postoperative Care: After the surgery, the patient is monitored as they recover from anaesthesia. Depending on the surgeon's recommendation, they may remain in the hospital for a short period or be discharged the same day.
  • Catheter Removal: The catheter is typically removed a day or two after surgery once the patient can urinate independently.
  • Recovery and Follow-Up:
    • Patients are given postoperative instructions for care, including managing discomfort, preventing infection, and resuming normal activities gradually.
    • Follow-up appointments are scheduled to monitor healing, address any concerns, and assess the improvement of urinary symptoms.

Indications of TURP (Transurethral resection of the prostate)

Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) is primarily indicated for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. When the prostate enlarges, it can obstruct urine flow and cause various urinary symptoms. Here are the main indications for undergoing TURP:

  • Urinary Symptoms:
    • Moderate to severe urinary symptoms caused by BPH, including:
    • Frequent urination, especially at night (nocturia)
    • Difficulty starting and stopping urination
    • Weak urine stream
    • Urinary urgency
    • Incomplete emptying of the bladder
    • Urinary retention (inability to empty the bladder)
  • Impaired Quality of Life: When urinary symptoms significantly impact a person's quality of life, they interfere with daily activities, sleep, and overall well-being.
  • Ineffective Medical Treatment: Conservative approaches such as lifestyle changes, medication, and other non-surgical interventions have not provided sufficient relief from urinary symptoms.
  • Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections: Chronic urinary retention due to BPH can lead to recurrent urinary tract infections, which can indicate surgical intervention.
  • Kidney Function Impairment: Severe cases of BPH can cause urinary obstruction and lead to kidney function impairment or damage. TURP may be considered to alleviate the block and prevent further complications.
  • Bladder Stones or Hematuria: BPH can lead to the formation of bladder stones or blood in the urine (hematuria), which may prompt the need for surgical intervention.

Who will treat for TURP (Transurethral resection of the prostate)

Urologists: Your Experts in TURP Treatment

When seeking treatment for Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP), urologists are dedicated medical professionals specializing in diagnosing, managing, and performing procedures related to the urinary tract and male reproductive system. If you're experiencing urinary symptoms caused by an enlarged prostate, urologists are the experts to consult for personalized care and treatment.

Why Choose a Urologist? Urologists bring a wealth of expertise, making them the go-to specialists for conditions like benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) that can impact urinary function. Here's why urologists are your best partners for TURP treatment:

  • Specialized Training : Urologists undergo extensive training in urological conditions, including the latest advancements in surgical techniques and treatments. This specialized education equips them to address a wide range of urinary issues.
  • Precise Diagnosis : Urologists are skilled at accurately diagnosing the underlying cause of urinary symptoms, ensuring that your treatment plan is tailored to your specific condition.
  • Customized Treatment : A urologist will guide you if TURP is recommended for your enlarged prostate. They'll explain the procedure, answer your questions, and provide comprehensive preoperative and postoperative care.
  • Surgical Expertise : Urologists are experienced in performing TURP procedures, ensuring that you receive expert surgical care to alleviate urinary symptoms and enhance your quality of life.
  • Long-Term Care : Your relationship with a urologist goes beyond the surgery. They offer long-term follow-up care to monitor your recovery, address concerns, and optimize your urinary health.

Preparing for TURP Surgery

If you're scheduled for Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) surgery, proper preparation is vital to ensuring a smooth and successful experience. Here's a step-by-step guide to help you get ready for the procedure:

  • Consultation with Your Urologist: Before the surgery, thoroughly discuss the procedure with your urologist, its benefits, risks, and expected outcomes. Address any questions or concerns you may have.
  • Medical Evaluation: Your urologist will conduct a medical evaluation to ensure you are fit for surgery. This may involve reviewing your medical history, performing physical exams, and ordering relevant tests.
  • Medication Review: Provide your urologist with a list of all your medications, supplements, and herbs. They will advise you on which drugs to continue or discontinue before the surgery, especially blood-thinning medications.
  • Fasting Instructions: Follow the fasting instructions provided by your urologist or surgical team. You'll need to refrain from eating or drinking for a specified time before the surgery.
  • Blood Tests and Imaging: You may need to undergo blood tests, urine tests, and imaging studies to ensure your overall health and assess the condition of your prostate.
  • Preoperative Instructions: Your urologist will provide specific preoperative instructions, including when to stop eating and drinking when to arrive at the hospital, and any necessary preparations at home.

Recovery After TURP Surgery

Recovery after Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) surgery is a crucial phase that requires patience, care, and adherence to medical guidance. Here's a comprehensive overview of what you can expect during the recovery period:

  • Immediate Postoperative Period: After the surgery, you'll be monitored in a recovery area as the effects of anaesthesia wear off. You may have a catheter to help drain urine from the bladder.
  • Hospital Stay: Most patients are discharged within a day or two, depending on their overall health and the extent of the surgery.
  • Catheter: You may have a urinary catheter for a few days after surgery to allow your urethra to heal. Your medical team will provide instructions on catheter care.
  • Discomfort: It's common to experience some discomfort, such as mild pain, burning during urination, and bladder spasms. Pain medication may be prescribed to manage this discomfort.
  • Urinary Changes: You may notice blood in your urine, which is normal after TURP. Your urine may also be slightly pink or brown for some time.
  • Physical Activity: While bed rest is recommended initially, your urologist will advise you on gradually resuming light activities. Avoid heavy lifting and strenuous exercises for a few weeks.
  • Hydration and Diet: Stay well-hydrated to help flush out the bladder and promote healing. Eat a balanced diet to support your recovery.
  • Medications: Follow your urologist's instructions regarding medication, including antibiotics, pain relievers, and other prescribed medications.
  • Catheter Removal: The catheter will be removed once your urologist determines that your urethra has healed adequately. You may experience a sensation of needing to urinate frequently after the catheter is removed.
  • Gradual Resumption of Activities: You can gradually resume normal activities, including work and exercise, as you heal. Your urologist will guide you on when it's safe to do so.
  • Full Recovery: Complete recovery varies from person to person but often takes several weeks. Your urologist will guide when you can expect to resume all your regular activities.

Lifestyle changes after TURP (Transurethral resection of the prostate) surgery

Embracing Positive Lifestyle Changes After TURP Surgery

After undergoing Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) surgery, certain lifestyle adjustments can significantly contribute to your overall well-being and aid in a smoother recovery. Here are some lifestyle changes to consider:

  • Stay Hydrated: Adequate hydration is essential for urinary health and the healing process. Drink plenty of water throughout the day to help flush out your urinary system and prevent urinary tract infections.
  • Maintain a Balanced Diet: Focus on a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats. Proper nutrition supports your body's healing process and immune system.
  • Manage Weight: Maintaining a healthy weight reduces the strain on your urinary system and promotes general well-being. Consult your healthcare provider for guidance on weight management.
  • Be Mindful of Bladder Health: Empty your bladder regularly, and avoid holding in urine for extended periods. This helps prevent urinary tract infections and supports bladder function.
  • Limit Caffeine and Alcohol: Both caffeine and alcohol can irritate the bladder and exacerbate urinary symptoms. Consider reducing your consumption, especially in the immediate postoperative period.
  • Avoid Heavy Lifting and Strenuous Activities: While recovering, refrain from heavy lifting and strenuous exercises that could strain your abdominal and pelvic muscles.
  • Gradual Resumption of Physical Activity: Consult your urologist before resuming exercise. Begin with gentle activities like walking and gradually progress to more intense workouts.
  • Follow Medication Guidelines: If you're prescribed medication, take it as directed by your urologist. This may include antibiotics, pain relievers, or drugs to relax the bladder.
  • Pelvic Floor Exercises: Pelvic floor exercises, such as Kegels, can help strengthen the muscles that support urinary control. Your healthcare provider can guide you on the proper technique.
  • Don't Ignore Urinary Urges: Respond promptly to the urge to urinate and avoid holding it in. This practice supports bladder health and minimizes strain on the urinary system.

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Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is TURP surgery?

TURP (Transurethral Resection of the Prostate) is a surgical procedure to treat an enlarged prostate by removing excess tissue obstructing the urethra.

2. Why is TURP surgery performed?

TURP is performed to alleviate urinary symptoms caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), such as difficulty urinating, weak urine stream, and frequent urination.

3. How is TURP surgery performed?

TURP is performed through the urethra using a resectoscope. The surgeon removes excess prostate tissue to relieve urinary obstruction.

4. Is TURP surgery performed under anaesthesia?

Yes, TURP is typically performed under either general or spinal anaesthesia.

5. How long does TURP surgery take?

The surgery usually takes about 1 to 2 hours.

6. What is the recovery time for TURP surgery?

Recovery varies, but most patients can return to light activities within a few weeks and resume complete activities within a few months.

7. Will I need a catheter after TURP surgery?

Yes, a catheter may be placed after surgery to drain urine and allow the bladder to heal. It's usually removed within a few days.

8. What are the potential risks of TURP surgery?

Risks include bleeding, infection, urinary incontinence, retrograde ejaculation, and erectile dysfunction.

9. How long will I experience discomfort after TURP surgery?

Mild discomfort in the joint for a few weeks, but it gradually improves.

10. When can I resume sexual activity after TURP surgery?

Sexual activity can typically be resumed after a few weeks once your urologist gives the go-ahead.

11. Will TURP surgery affect my ability to have children?

TURP doesn't affect fertility but can lead to retrograde ejaculation, where semen enters the bladder instead of exiting through the penis.

12. Can TURP surgery be repeated if necessary?

Yes, in some cases, TURP can be repeated if symptoms recur or worsen.

13. Can TURP surgery treat prostate cancer?

TURP is not a treatment for prostate cancer. It's used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

14. What's the success rate of TURP surgery?

TURP is effective in relieving urinary symptoms in the majority of patients with BPH.

15. Will I need to take medications after TURP surgery?

Your urologist may prescribe medications to manage pain, prevent infection, and relax the bladder muscles.

16. How long will it take for my urine to return to normal after TURP surgery?

Urine may initially be bloody or discoloured but gradually clears within a few weeks.

17. When should I contact my urologist after TURP surgery?

Contact your urologist if you experience severe pain, heavy bleeding, fever, difficulty urinating, or other unusual symptoms.

18. Can lifestyle changes help after TURP surgery?

Yes, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, staying hydrated, and avoiding irritants can support your recovery.

19. Will I need follow-up appointments after TURP surgery?

Yes, your urologist will schedule follow-up appointments to monitor your progress and address any concerns.

20. How long until I see the full benefits of TURP surgery?

Improvement in urinary symptoms can be noticeable within weeks, with maximum benefits reached over a few months.

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