Prostate cancer is the cancer pertaining to prostate gland. In cancer, there is abnormal cell division in an uncontrolled way. The uncontrolled cell growth metastasizes into the nearby tissues or organs and also spread throughout the body, if left untreated.
The prostate gland constitutes a part of the male reproductive organ and is the size of a walnut at the bottom of the bladder. This gland generates fluids to nourish and carry sperm (seminal fluid).
Prostate cancer symptoms:
Prostate cancer symptoms are not very much visible during the initial stage.
The advanced stage of prostate cancer may show symptoms such as:
- Discomfort during urinating
- Less force in the stream of urine
- Hematuria - Blood in the urine
- Bone pain
- Blood in the semen
- Loss of weight for no reason
- Erectile dysfunction
When To See a Doctor?
Consult your doctor if you experience any symptoms mentioned above that are persistent and are worrying you.
Consult our oncologists and urologists for more information and adequate treatment for prostate cancer.
The causes of prostate cancer are unknown.
According to doctors, when the prostate gland cells develop changes in their DNA, they can result in cancer of the prostate gland. The cells' DNA controls the cells' functions and the mutated DNA causes the cells to grow and divide more rapidly than what normal cells do. The accumulation of unhealthy abnormal cells forms a mass called a tumour that can metastasize to the surrounding tissues.
Risk for prostate cancer includes the following factors:
The risk of cancer increases in old age.
If parents or any close relative had prostate cancer, the chances of getting this cancer also increase.
Obesity: Obese people may have a higher risk of this cancer than people with healthy weight.
Complications of prostate cancer include:
Urinary incontinence:Prostate cancer and its treatment can lead to urinary incontinence.
Prostate cancer metastasizes:
Prostate cancer cells can spread to the surrounding organs, such as the urinary bladder, or get transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other body parts.
The dysfunction is due to the cancer or its treatment methods such as surgery, radiation or hormonal treatments.
Diagnosis and treatment
If the doctor suspects cancer of the prostate gland, he or she will enquire about related prostate problems such as urinary or sexual issues and other risk factors like family history. Following tests would be recommended to diagnose the condition.
PSA blood test:
A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test is done to evaluate the PSA levels, the proteins produced by both normal and cancerous prostate cells.
Digital rectal examination (DRE):
It is a routine screening test to monitor a patient’s lower rectum, pelvis, and lower abdomen. This test can help a doctor check a prostate gland's health.
A prostate biopsy test is done to remove tissue samples from the prostate gland for microscopic examination.
Ultrasound scan (USG scan):
Prostate ultrasound uses sound waves to create pictures of a prostate gland and find any abnormal mass in the organ.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI):
A multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) scan can help the doctor detect prostate gland malignancy and its capacity to grow.
Prostate cancer treatment methods are as follows:
Radical prostatectomy:Radical prostatectomy: A radical prostatectomy is recommended for prostate cancer patients whose cancer is in its initial phase. This operation may not be suitable if the malignancy has spread outside the prostate gland.
Types of radical prostatectomy are:
- Retropubic prostatectomy
- Perineal prostatectomy
- Laparoscopic prostatectomy
- Robotic prostatectomy
Radiation therapy (radiotherapy)
Radiation therapy (radiotherapy)Radiation therapy (radiotherapy) is recommended in patients with the is in its cancer early stage or if surgery is not an option.
Radiotherapy can be done with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or by implanting radioactive seeds (brachytherapy).
Hormonal therapy for prostate cancer:
Hormone therapy or androgen suppression therapy helps to decrease male hormone levels, called androgens, or to inhibit them from increasing prostate cancer cells.
Cryotherapy: Hormone therapy or androgen suppression therapy helps to decrease male hormone levels, called androgens, or to inhibit them from increasing prostate cancer cells.
Minimal dysplasia or low-grade dysplasia
Cryoablation or cryotherapy uses a special probe to freeze and kill the malignant cells.
This therapy may be a treatment option for curing metastasized prostate cancer, and it also treats cancers that don't respond to hormonal therapy.
Immunotherapy for prostate cancer stimulates a patient's own defence (immune) system to counter-attack cancer cells. One such vaccine is sipuleucel-T (Provenge), which induces an immune system to fight back against cancer cells.
Targeted drug therapy
Targeted drug treatments aim to treat certain abnormalities of the malignant cells. This therapy can cause cancer cells to die, and it is indicated to manage advanced or recurrent prostate cancer cases.
Prostate Cancer Care at Medicover Hospitals
At Medicover Hospitals, we have the most trusted team of oncologists and urologists who work together to provide personalized cancer treatment to the patients after evaluating the condition thoroughly. Our medical professionals adopt a comprehensive approach for treating prostate cancer and its related complications with utmost care and precision. For prostate cancer, we analyse the stage of the cancer and design a specific treatment pathway that is best suited as per the patient’s unique condition.