Stomach cancer or gastric cancer refers to cancer that develops in any part of the stomach. These cancers are classified according to the type of tissue in which they originate. Adenocarcinoma, which starts in the glandular tissue of the stomach and accounts for 90-95 percent of all stomach cancers, is the most prevalent form of stomach cancer. Other forms of stomach cancer include lymphomas, which affect the lymphatic system, and sarcomas, which affect connective tissue (such as muscle, fat, or blood vessels). Stomach cancer is often curable if it is found and treated at an early stage.
The signs are not very apparent in the early phases of stomach cancer. But in the later stages the following symptoms appear:
- Indigestion and upset stomach.
- A bloated feeling after eating.
- Mild nausea
- Loss of appetite
Such signs are similar to peptic ulcer symptoms. If you experience any of these symptoms, you should see your healthcare provider so that a proper diagnosis can be made and prompt treatment can be given. Stomach cancer can grow long before it causes other symptoms.
In more advanced cancer, you may have:
- Discomfort in the upper or middle part of the abdomen
- Blood in the stool (which appears as black, tarry stools)
- Vomiting or vomiting blood.
- Weight loss.
- Pain or bloating in the stomach after eating.
- Weakness or fatigue associated with mild anemia (a deficiency of red blood cells)
The exact cause of stomach cancer is unknown, but several factors can increase the risk and causes of the disease, including:
According to studies, men have more than twice the risk of getting stomach cancer compared to their female counterparts.
The incidence of stomach cancer is on the higher side among African, Americans or Asians.
Genetic abnormalities and some inherited cancer syndromes can increase a person's risk of developing stomach cancer.
There could be a greater danger for individuals of blood group A.
Stomach cancer occurs most often around age 70-74 in men and women, respectively. A family history of stomach cancer can double or triple the risk of stomach cancer. Lifestyle factors, such as smoking, drinking alcohol, and eating a diet without fruits and vegetables, or high in salty, smoked, or nitrate-preserved foods, can increase risk.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the stomach
H.pylori is a bacterium that infects and causes chronic inflammation and ulcers in the lining of the stomach. Certain health conditions, including chronic gastritis, pernicious anemia, gastric polyps, intestinal metaplasia, and previous stomach surgery. Work-related exposure from coal mining, nickel refining, and rubber and wood processing, and asbestos exposure.
If any of the following symptoms occur, such as indigestion, weight loss, nausea, and loss of appetite, screening tests may be recommended.
Upper GI Series
These are X-rays of the esophagus, stomach, and the first part of the intestine taken after drinking a barium solution. The barium outlines the stomach on the radiograph, which allows the doctor to identify cancers or other suspicious areas by using advanced imaging equipment.
Gastroscopy And Biopsy
Using a small, light tube called a gastroscope, which is pushed through the mouth into the stomach, this procedure explores the esophagus and stomach. Through the gastroscope, the doctor can look directly into the stomach. If an abnormal area is found, the doctor will remove some tissue (biopsy) for examination under a microscope. The surest way to detect cancer is through a biopsy. Gastroscopy and biopsy are the best ways to identify stomach cancer. Once stomach cancer is diagnosed, more tests can be done to find out if cancer has spread. These tests may include CT scans, positron emission scans, bone scans, laparoscopy, and endoscopic ultrasound.
Other tests were performed: Medical exam: For blood, swelling, or other adjustments, the doctor feels the belly. The doctor will also look for lymph nodes that are swollen.
The doctor uses a thin, lighted tube (endoscope) to look inside the stomach. First, numb the patient's throat with an anesthetic spray. The tube is then moved into the mouth and esophagus to the stomach.
An endoscope has a tool to remove tissue. An endoscope is used by a doctor to extract tissue from the stomach. The tissue is tested under a microscope for cancer cells by a pathologist. A biopsy is the only sure way to know if there are cancer cells
If it is found at an early stage, stomach cancer is hard to treat. since early stomach cancer causes few symptoms, before the diagnosis is made, the condition is normally advanced. Stomach cancer care can include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation treatment. New treatment approaches such as biological therapy and Better ways to use current methods are being studied in clinical trials.
Surgery is the most common treatment. The surgeon removes part or all of the stomach, as well as the surrounding lymph nodes, with the basic goal of removing all of the cancerous tissue and a margin of normal tissue. Depending on the extent of the invasion and the location of the tumor, surgery may also include the removal of part of the intestine or pancreas. Tumors in the lower stomach may require a Billroth I or Billroth II procedure. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is a treatment for early gastric cancer (the tumor only affects the mucosa) that has been pioneered in Japan but is also available in the United States in some centers. In this procedure, the tumor, along with the lining of the stomach (mucosa), is removed from the stomach wall by a loop of electrical wire through the endoscope. The advantage is that it is a much smaller procedure than stomach elimination. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a similar technique started in Japan, used to resect a large area of mucosa in one piece. If pathological examination of the resected specimen shows incomplete resection or deep tumor invasion, the patient needs a formal resection of the stomach. Surgical interventions are currently curative in less than 40% of all cases, and in cases of metastasis, they can only be palliative.
The use of chemotherapy to treat stomach cancer does not have a firmly established standard of care. Unfortunately, stomach cancer has not been especially responsive to these medications, and chemotherapy decreases the size of the tumor palliatively if used, relieves the effects of the illness, and raises the volume of the tumor survival time.
The use of high-energy rays to destroy cancer cells and stop them from developing is called radiation therapy. When used, it is usually combined with surgery and chemotherapy or only used with chemotherapy in cases where the individual is unable to undergo surgery. Radiation therapy can be used to relieve pain or obstruction by shrinking the tumor to alleviate an incurable disease