Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin. It is one of eight vitamins that form vitamin B-complex. Nowadays, vitamin B12 deficiency isn’t a bizarre occurrence.

Why is vitamin B12 important?

Vitamin B12 is vital for the formation of red blood cells that carry oxygen around the body. It is also needed for the proper functioning and health of nerve tissue, as it is involved in producing the protective myelin sheath that covers the nerves and conducts nerve impulses. It works together with folate in the metabolism of cells, especially affecting DNA synthesis and fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.

This particular B vitamin also helps our bodies absorb folic acid, which facilitates the release of energy. Since your body doesn’t make vitamin B12, it is important to get it from food sources (especially animal-based foods) or supplements on a regular basis. Always consult your doctor before starting any supplement regimen.

What causes vitamin B12 deficiency?

A deficiency of this important vitamin can occur due to a diet that contains very little vitamin B12. People who follow a vegan or vegetarian diet often lack this vitamin, because it is commonly found in animal products.

Another common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anemia. It is an autoimmune disorder that occurs due to loss of stomach cells that make intrinsic factor, a protein which helps the body absorb vitamin B12 in the intestine. This leads to low vitamin B12 in the body.

Who is at a higher risk?

  • People age 50 or older
  • People who eat a vegetarian or vegan diet
  • Infants who are born to vegan mothers and exclusively breastfed
  • People suffering from diseases that affect digestion, such as celiac and Crohn’s disease
  • People who have had gastrointestinal surgery
  • People who are malnutritioned
  • People who are chronic alcoholics.

Signs of Vitamin B12 Deficiency:

1. Fatigue and Low Energy

This vitamin plays a prominent role in energy metabolism, hence its deficiency has a direct impact on your energy and endurance levels. Vitamin B12 enhances your body’s ability to make DNA for new cells to provide energy. It is also needed to form healthy red blood cells that carry oxygen to the whole body. Without proper oxygen levels, you feel tired and lethargic. Plus, B12 is needed to turn the food you eat into energy to power your metabolism. Low metabolism prevents you from feeling your best and performing at your highest energy level.

2. Numbness and Tingling Sensations

Vitamin B12 plays a key role in keeping your nervous system healthy. Thus, neurological signs like numbness or a tingling sensation in the hands and feet can indicate its deficiency. Vitamin B12 helps in the manufacturing of nerves and, moreover, it has a key role in helping oxygen reach different parts of the body. Poor oxygen supply is one of the main causes of numbness and tingling sensations. Its deficiency can also cause balance problems.

3. Low Blood Pressure

Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folic acid can cause anemia, which can lead to low blood pressure, also known as hypotension. Vitamin B12 helps your body produce red blood cells so that adequate oxygen reaches each and every part of your body, including the heart. If you suffer from low blood pressure, opt for a B12 test. Even moderate forms of low blood pressure can cause shortness of breath, dizziness, weakness, fainting, and risk of injury from falls.

4. Skin Lesions

Low vitamin B12 can also cause skin lesions and hair changes. Unexplained and non-resolving skin lesions can signal vitamin B12 deficiency, hence you need to visit your doctor as soon as possible. Along with skin lesions, its deficiency can cause hyperpigmentation of the skin, which leads to uneven skin color and dark patches on the skin.

5. Depression

This particular B vitamin is also essential for mental health. Its role in forming red blood cells, in turn, helps support a healthy nervous system. Plus, it helps lower the level of homocysteine, a by-product of protein metabolism. A high level of homocysteine in the body can lead to depression. This is why it is important to consider the possibility of B12 deficiency, especially among the elderly suffering from depression.

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Frequently Asked Questions

1. What are the symptoms of being B12 deficiency?

The symptoms are weak muscles, numb or tingling sensation in hands and feet, trouble walking, nausea, decreased appetite, weight loss, irritability, lack of energy or tiring easily (fatigue).

2. What is the main cause of vitamin B12 deficiency?

The most common cause of vitamin B-12 deficiency anaemia is a lack of a substance known as intrinsic factor, which is caused when your immune system attacks the stomach cells that produce this substance. Pernicious anaemia is the name for this type of anaemia.

3. Is B12 deficiency serious?

Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause serious problems like nerve damage, anaemia, and fatigue, which is why those who are at risk should take a high-quality B12 supplement.

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