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Vascular and Oncology Interventional Radiology are two specialised fields within radiology. Vascular Interventional Radiology (VIR) involves minimally invasive procedures performed by interventional radiologists to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting blood vessels. These procedures are typically performed using image-guided techniques, such as X-rays, ultrasound, and CT scans, to guide small catheters and other tools through the blood vessels to reach the affected area. Common procedures include angioplasty and stenting, embolisation to stop bleeding, and thrombolysis to dissolve blood clots.

Onco Interventional Radiology (OIR) is a subspecialty of interventional radiology that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. OIR uses minimally invasive techniques to deliver targeted therapies directly to the tumour while minimising damage to healthy tissues. These procedures can include tumour embolisation, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation, and cryoablation. OIR can also be used for diagnostic purposes like biopsy or imaging-guided aspiration. Both subspecialties require highly trained radiologists with expertise in imaging technology and minimally invasive procedures. Also, they work together with other medical professionals, such as surgeons and oncologists, to offer complete patient care.

Symptoms Treated in Vascular and Oncology Interventional Radiology

Here are some signs that can be treated using Interventional Radiology techniques:

  • Pain in the back, neck, or joints
  • Bleeding from an injury, surgery, or cancer
  • Blockages in the blood vessels or bile ducts
  • Swelling due to fluid buildup or lymphedema
  • Tumours benign or malignant
  • Infertility in women due to blocked fallopian tubes
  • Varicose veins in the legs or pelvis
  • Fibroids in the uterus
  • Kidney problems, blockages, stones, or tumours
  • Liver problems, cancer or cirrhosis
  • Lung problems, cancer or blood clots
  • Prostate problems, cancer, or enlargement
  • Thyroid problems, cancer or overactivity

The specific symptoms that can be treated with Interventional Radiology may vary depending on the patient's case and medical history.

Treatment Available

Vascular and oncologic interventional radiology are two branches of medical imaging that use minimally invasive techniques to diagnose and treat various conditions. Here are some of the treatments available in these fields:


A procedure that involves inserting a balloon catheter into a blocked artery and inflating it to open up the blocked area. This helps improve blood flow and prevent stroke or heart attack complications.


This procedure involves placing a small, metal mesh tube (stent) into a narrowed or weakened artery to support it and improve blood flow.


A technique used to block blood vessels or blood flow to tumors or abnormal growths, starving them of nutrients and causing them to shrink or die.

Radiofrequency ablation:

This technique uses heat to destroy cancer cells or abnormal tissue by inserting a needle-like electrode into the area and passing high-frequency electrical currents through it.


A technique used to freeze and destroy cancer cells or abnormal tissue by inserting a needle-like probe into the area and using extreme cold to kill the cells.

Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE):

A procedure used to treat liver cancer by injecting chemotherapy drugs directly into the liver artery while blocking blood flow to the tumour.


A technique used to treat liver cancer by injecting radioactive particles into the liver artery, which are then carried directly to the tumour and destroy cancer cells.

Diagnostic Tests

Vascular & Onco Intervention Radiology involves using imaging techniques to guide minimally invasive procedures for diagnosis and treatment. Some of the diagnostic tests commonly conducted in interventional radiology include:


A needle or catheter is used to take a tiny tissue sample from the body while being guided by imaging modalities such as ultrasonography, CT, or MRI. This tissue is then examined under a microscope to diagnose cancer.


A dye is injected into the blood vessels to visualise their structure and identify any blockages or abnormalities. This test is commonly used to diagnose peripheral artery disease, pulmonary embolism, or aneurysms.


A real-time X-ray imaging technique that allows the interventional radiologist to visualise the movement of contrast material or medical devices within the body. This test is often used to diagnose gastrointestinal disorders, urinary tract problems, or joint injuries.


A non-invasive imaging method that creates images of internal organs and tissues using sound waves. This test is commonly used to diagnose gallbladder disease, liver disease, or pelvic disorders.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI):

A non-invasive technique use radio waves and magnetic fields to create detailed images of internal structures. This test is often used to diagnose brain and spinal cord disorders, joint injuries, or tumours.

Computed tomography (CT):

An imaging technique that uses X-rays and a computer to create detailed images of the organs. This test is often used to diagnose lung disease, abdominal disorders, or bone fractures.