Lung Cancer

Lung Cancer
By Medicover Hospitals / 16 Feb 2021
Home | cancer | Lung Cancer

Article Context

  1. Overview
  2. Symptoms
  3. Causes
  4. Types of lung cancer
  5. Diagnosis
  6. Treatment
  7. Frequently Asked Questions
  8. Citations

Overview

  • Lung cancer- the deadliest type of cancer. Each year, more people die than breast, colon, and prostate cancers combined. Although smoking has been the leading cause of lung cancer, there have also been cases among non-smokers. Although lung cancer is asymptomatic in the early stages, it can be detected by X-ray.
  • Symptoms

  • Some of the common symptoms of lung cancers are:
    • Chronic cough for more than a month
    • Coughing up blood (hemoptysis)
    • shortness of breath
    • Wheezing
    • chest pain
    • fatigue
    • Difficulty swallowing
    • Progressive weight loss
    • loss of appetite
    • Joint problems
    • Swelling of the arms and face

    Causes:

    Smoking And Lung Cancer:

  • Cigarette smoke consists of greater than 60 recognized carcinogens, along with radioisotopes of the radon decay sequence, nitrosamine, and benzopyrene. In addition, nicotine tends to suppress the immune response of exposed tissue to cancerous growth. Therefore, it is not surprising that smoking accounts for between 80 and 90% of lung cancer cases. Passive smoking: is the inhalation of smoke resulting from another person who smokes nearby. A passive smoker can be classified as someone who lives or works with a smoker. Those who live with smokers have a 20-30% higher risk, while those in secondhand smoke environments have a 16-19% higher risk compared to non-smokers who are far from such environments.
  • Gas Radon And Lung Cancer:

  • Radon is a colorless, odorless gas generated by the decay of radioactive radium. The decay products of radiation ionize genetic material and cause mutations that sometimes turn cancerous. For each increase in radon concentration by 100 Becquerel per atomic mass, the risk increases 8-16%. Becquerel is a unit generated for radioactivity measurement.
  • Asbestos And Lung Cancer:

  • A variety of lung diseases, including lung cancer, can be caused by asbestos. There is a synergistic impact of smoke and asbestos on the formation of lung cancer. Asbestos can cause pleural cancer as well (a thin lining between the lung and the chest wall). An aggressive cancer of the pleura is called mesothelioma and affects the lungs, heart, or abdomen.
  • Air Pollution And Lung Cancer:

  • Outdoor air pollution has little effect on increasing the risk of lung cancer. Fine particulates (PM2.5) and sulfate aerosols, which are released in traffic exhaust gases, increase the risk of lung cancer. An increase of 10 parts per billion in nitrogen dioxide increases the risk of lung cancer by 14%. Outdoor air pollution is estimated to explain 1-2% of lung cancers. There is evidence to show that an increased risk of lung cancer is attributed to air pollution, such as burning wood, charcoal, manure, or crop residues for cooking and heating. Women exposed to indoor coal smoke are at approximately twice the risk. Furthermore, some by-products of biomass burning are known to be suspected carcinogens.
  • Genetics And Lung Cancer:

  • It is estimated that between 8% and 14% of lung cancer is due to hereditary factors. In relatives of people with lung cancer, the risk increases 2.4 times. This is possibly due to a gene combination.
  • Other Causes:

  • Numerous other environmental substances, occupations, and exposures have been linked to lung cancer which are:
    • Production and extraction of some metals and arsenic compounds
    • By-products of combustion such as carbon monoxide, Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and lead.
    • Ionizing radiation
    • Toxic gases
    • Production of rubber and crystalline silica powder.

    Types:

    Adenocarcinoma Lung Cancer

  • In bronchioles, this type of cancer grows and is typically found in the outer layers of the lungs. This type of lung cancer has a slow growth rate, and women tend to have a higher risk of developing adenocarcinoma. It usually begins in the glandular cell and some internal organs with the possibility of treatment. Adenocarcinoma is a type of NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer) that accounts for 80-85% of all lung cancers. In cases where adenocarcinoma has spread to a greater extent, it is known as advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Treatment of adenocarcinoma lung cancer is subject to severity and the modalities may vary depending on the prognosis. During the advanced stage or fourth stage of lung cancer, it develops into large cell lung carcinoma where the cancer cells have spread widely within the lungs from the point of origin. In such cases, the occurrence of lung cancer treatment varies.
  • Small Cell Lung Cancer:

  • One of the most common culprits for this cancer is smoking, and its symptoms include coughing, shortness of breath, and severe chest pain. Usually, in small cell lung cancer, there is an uncontrolled growth of cells that form a tumor in the lungs. About 10-15% is small cell lung cancer, and in summary, SCLC is also known as oat cell cancer. When oat cell cancer has spread widely, it is known as advanced small cell lung cancer.
  • Diagnosis:

  • Taking a chest X-ray is one of the first steps in the investigation when a person reports symptoms that may suggest lung cancer. This may reveal an obvious mass, widening of the mediastinum (suggesting spread to the lymph nodes there), atelectasis (collapse), consolidation (pneumonia), or pleural effusion. CT images are used to provide more information about the type and extent of the disease. A CT-guided biopsy or bronchoscopy is often used to sample the tumor for histopathology. Lung cancer often appears as a solitary pulmonary nodule on a chest X-ray. However, the differential diagnosis is broad. Many other diseases can also give this appearance, including tuberculosis, yeast infections, and pneumonia. Less common causes of a solitary pulmonary nodule include hamartomas, bronchogenic cysts, adenomas, arteriovenous malformations, pulmonary sequestration, rheumatoid nodules, Wegener syndrome, or lymphoma, and treatment can vary. Lung cancer can also be an incidental finding, such as a solitary pulmonary nodule on a chest x-ray or The CT scan is done for an unrelated reason. The clinical diagnosis of lung cancer is based on a clinical and radiological histological analysis of the suspect tissue. It is important to note that a detailed diagnosis is necessary to increase the effectiveness of lung cancer treatment.
  • Treatment:

  • When it comes to treating lung cancer, you need to understand the specific cell type of cancer, how far it has spread, and the person's overall health. In cases where cancer has spread to other organs, it is called metastatic lung cancer. Common treatments for lung cancer include palliative care, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Treatment depends entirely on the stage of the lung cancer.
  • Surgery For Lung Cancer:

  • If investigations confirm NSCLC (non-small cell lung carcinoma), the stage is evaluated to determine whether the disease is localized and can be treated by surgery or has spread to the point where it cannot be treated surgically, which is commonly known as metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. Computed tomography and positron emission tomography are commonly used to determine the stage of lung cancer. If mediastinal lymph node involvement is suspected, mediastinoscopy may be used to sample the nodes and aid in staging for the treatment of lung cancer. Blood tests and lung function tests are used to assess whether a person is well enough for surgery. during lung cancer treatment. If lung function tests reveal poor respiratory reserve, surgery may not be a possibility. The reduction of the lobe of the lung (lobectomy) is the surgical procedure of choice in most cases of early-stage NSCLC and is part of stage 1. In people who are not eligible for a complete lobectomy, a perform smaller sublobar excision performed. Wedge resection, however, has a greater chance of recurrence than lobectomy. In rare cases, an entire lung is removed (pneumonectomy). A minimally invasive approach to lung cancer treatment is used by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and VATS lobectomy.VATS lobectomy is equally effective compared to conventional open lobectomy, with less postoperative disease. In SCLC (small cell lung carcinoma), chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy are used. The function of surgery in SCLC, however, is being reconsidered. Surgery may improve outcomes when added to chemotherapy and radiation in early-stage SCLC. In cases where small cell lung carcinoma has become metastatic, treatment options include chemotherapy and radiation therapy. To avoid complications, it is recommended that you visit the doctor. During the early stages of diagnosis, cancer care becomes easy.
  • Radiotherapy For Lung Cancer:

  • Radiation therapy is often given in conjunction with chemotherapy treatment in lung cancer and can be used with curative intent in people with NSCLC who are not eligible for surgery. This method of radiation therapy with high intensity is called radical radiation therapy. A refinement of this technique is Continuous Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiation Therapy (CHART), in which a high dose of radiation therapy is administered in a short period of time. If cancer growth blocks a small section of the bronchus, brachytherapy (localized radiation therapy) may be given directly into the airway to open the tube. Compared to external beam radiation therapy, brachytherapy reduces treatment time and radiation exposure for healthcare personnel. Recent developments in targeting and imaging that have contributed to the advancement of stereotactic radiation in the treatment of early-stage lung cancer include some of the advancements in lung cancer therapies. In this form of radiation therapy, high doses are administered in a small number of sessions using stereotaxic targeting techniques. Its use is mainly in patients who are not candidates for surgery due to medical comorbidities.
  • Cyber Treatment For Lung Cancer:

  • Other advancements include the CyberKnife treatment, which is designed to streamline and optimize SBRT (Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy). SBRT is a method of delivering targeted radiation therapy to effectively treat lung cancer tumors. This latest lung cancer treatment is capable of adjusting the beams based on the small movements made by patients and also on the movement of the tumor caused by breathing during treatment. This precise delivery method allows the tumor to quickly receive the full dose of radiation. For patients with NSCLC and SCLC, smaller doses of radiation to the chest may be used to control symptoms (palliative radiation therapy).
  • Chemotherapy For Lung Cancer:

  • The chemotherapy regimen depends on the type of tumor. Both small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small cell lung carcinoma can be treated with chemotherapy and radiation. In advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), chemotherapy treatment improves survival rate and is used as a first-line treatment against radiation. While metastatic small cell lung cancer is being treated, a check is done to see if the patient is fit enough to receive treatment. Fitness is an important factor in determining patient survival. Adjuvant chemotherapy refers to the use of chemotherapy, after curative surgery, to improve the outcome. Chemotherapy is usually given as the next step in lung cancer treatment after surgery. In NSCLC, nearby lymph nodes are sampled during surgery to aid staging. If stage II or III disease is confirmed, adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival by 5% at five years. Adjuvant chemotherapy as a treatment option for lung cancer during stage IV cancer is debatable, as clinical trials have not shown a survival benefit or standard success rate. Trials of preoperative chemotherapy (neoadjuvant chemotherapy) have been inconclusive. Patients undergoing chemotherapy can experience side effects during this type of lung cancer treatment, such as hair loss, mouth pain, loss of appetite, nausea, and even vomiting, to name a few.
  • Frequently Asked Questions:

    1. A recent cough and does not go away
    2. Blood coughing, even a slight amount
    3. shortness of breath
    4. chest pain
    5. Hoarseness
    6. Lose weight without trying
    7. Bone pain
    8. Headache
    Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer. Around 90% of cases of lung cancer are caused by it.
    The key to surviving lung cancer is finding it in its early stages when it is most treatable. For patients with early-stage small lung cancer, the cure rate can be as high as 80% to 90%.
    The 5-year survival rate for NSCLC is 24%, compared to 6% for small cell lung cancer.
    1. Shortness of breath
    2. Pain
    3. Cough
    4. Trouble focusing
    5. Confusion
    6. Extreme weakness and tiredness
    7. Little interest in eating or drinking
    8. Restlessness
    If cancer affects the lungs, the tumor can grow so large that it blocks one of the main airways, so that part of the lung cannot be used for breathing or an infection can develop due to the blockage.
    Stage I: The cancer is in the lung tissues, but not in the lymph nodes. Stage II: The disease may have spread to lymph nodes near the lungs. Stage III: It has spread more to the lymph nodes and the middle of the chest. Stage IV: Cancer has spread widely throughout your body.
    The leading cause of cancer mortality in women is lung cancer, killing more women per year than combined breast, ovarian and uterine cancer.
    Chemotherapy is often used together with radiation therapy to treat lung cancer. Together, chemotherapy drugs and radiation may work better to kill cancer cells. In some people with lung cancer, chemotherapy can make the tumor small so that radiation works better to destroy it.

    Citations:

  • lung-cancer, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0012369215329810
  • lung cancer symptoms, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0885392499001505