Hepatitis
By Medicover Hospitals / 25 Sep 2021

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Article Context:

  1. Hepatitis
  2. Types
  3. Causes
  4. Symptoms
  5. Treatments
  6. Complications
  7. Prevention
  8. FAQs

Hepatitis

  • Inflammation of the Liver Tissue is called hepatitis. It is usually caused by a virus while there may be other reasons for the same. It usually impacts the liver. Inflammation of the Liver Tissue is called hepatitis. It is usually caused by a virus while there may be other reasons for the same. There are various types of hepatitis depending on the nature of the virus that causes the condition. Other possible causes include autoimmune hepatitis and secondary effects of medications, drugs, alcohol, or toxins. Hepatitis may show symptoms such as yellow discoloration of the skin, vomiting, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, or diarrhea. Hepatitis impacts the Liver which is an essential part of the human body. The Liver is a vital organ, located in the upper right area of the abdomen. It performs various critical functions that impact the body’s metabolism. Some of the key functions performed by the liver are:
    • Toxin removal from the body
    • Bile production is an important aspect of digestion.
    • Synthesis of clotting factors
    • Albumin and other blood proteins are synthesized.
    • Cholesterol, hormone, and bilirubin secretion
    • Vitamins (A, D, E, and K), minerals, and glycogen are all stored in the body.
    • The breakdown of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
    • Enzymes are specialized proteins that are required for physiological functioning.

    Types

  • Viral hepatitis is divided into five categories. Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E are the different types. Some of these are short-term (acute), while others endure a lifetime (chronic).
  • Hepatitis A

  • The virus type A causes hepatitis A. It is transferred through an infected person's feces. Avoiding outside food and drinking clean, filtered water are two important preventative measures for Hepatitis A. It's acute (meaning it's just transitory) and can be identified with a variety of blood tests. Hepatitis A can't be cured with medication, and it usually goes away on its own. Throughout your recuperation, you should have regular liver function testing.
  • Hepatitis B

  • Hepatitis in the blood is also known as serum hepatitis. While Hepatitis B is usually acute (short-term), it can develop into chronic liver problems such as cirrhosis, liver failure, or cancer. A liver transplant may be necessary in some instances. Symptoms usually appear a few months after the virus has been contracted. Nausea, vomiting, stomach ache, slight fever, joint and muscle pains, loss of appetite, and skin and eye white part yellowing are some of the symptoms. The majority of hepatitis symptoms are the same regardless of the type.
  • Blood testing for the HBV virus and antibodies are used to diagnose hepatitis B. Hepatitis B is transmitted through the blood and bodily fluids. Using fresh syringes, avoiding any touch with an infected person's blood, and avoiding contact with individuals who are infected are all precautionary steps. Contracting HIV is more likely if you have intercourse with an infected partner or share razors. Hepatitis B usually clears up on its own. Antiviral medications may be prescribed to a patient to prevent the infection from becoming severe or chronic.
  • Hepatitis C

  • Hepatitis C comes in two forms: acute and chronic. Within 6 months, acute hepatitis C may resolve on its own. If this does not occur, the patient is at risk of developing chronic Hepatitis C, which will necessitate lifetime treatment and, in some cases, a liver transplant. Hepatitis C is transmitted solely by blood, so it can be avoided by taking the required precautions to avoid coming into touch with infected blood. Hepatitis C cases will require a liver biopsy following a blood test diagnosis so that doctors can better understand how the liver is working. Hepatitis C treatment differs depending on whether it is chronic or acute. When you have acute hepatitis, you should drink plenty of fluids and relax as much as possible. Antiviral medicines are prescribed if the infection is chronic, and individuals may need a liver transplant.
  • Hepatitis D

  • Hepatitis D, often known as Delta hepatitis, is caused by an infection with the human hepatitis virus (HDV). HDV cannot reproduce or expand on its own and requires the presence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) to reproduce. As a result, people with Hepatitis B have a higher risk of getting Hepatitis D.Hepatitis B prophylaxis also leads to hepatitis D prevention. Antiviral medications are frequently used as a treatment, even though they are known to have little effect on the Hepatitis D virus. Blood tests are used to diagnose it.
  • Hepatitis E

  • This is a waterborne disease that also spreads through infected patients' feces. Hepatitis E outbreaks are more likely in areas where open defecation is practiced. Skin rashes, evidence of jaundice, joint discomfort, and nausea are just a few of the symptoms. To avoid catching the HEV, which causes hepatitis E, eat properly prepared food and drink filtered boiling water. Hepatitis E usually clears up on its own. Doctors may prescribe antiviral medications to eradicate the virus from the body and prevent it from getting severe if it does not resolve on its own. Hepatitis can be avoided in the long run by taking simple precautions. If you think you might have hepatitis, you should see a doctor as soon as possible.
  • Symptoms

  • Some of the signs and symptoms of acute hepatitis are:
  • Causes

  • Inflammation of the liver can be caused by a variety of factors, the most common of which are viral infections. Hepatitis is caused by a variety of factors:
    • Excessive consumption of alcohols
    • Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)
    • Toxic caused due to poisons or chemicals
    • Viral Hepatitis
    • Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
    • Hemochromatosis
    • Decreased blood flow to the liver
    • Primary biliary cirrhosis
    • Primary sclerosing cholangitis
    • Wilson’s disease

    Treatments

  • Acute viral hepatitis and chronic viral hepatitis require distinct treatments. Rest, symptom relief, and proper hydration intake are all part of the treatment for acute viral hepatitis. Chronic viral hepatitis is treated with antiviral drugs as well as steps to prevent additional liver damage.The first line of treatment for patients with acute viral hepatitis is to alleviate the symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal discomfort (supportive care). Medication or chemicals that potentially have negative effects in persons with impaired liver function should be carefully monitored.
  • Acute HCV can be treated with some of the same medications that are used to treat chronic HCV, even though it is rarely detected. HCV treatment is particularly suggested for the 80 percent of individuals who do not completely eradicate the virus. The infection is cleared in the majority of patients after treatment.
  • Hepatitis B and C chronic infections are usually treated with medication or a combination of treatments to remove the virus. Successful eradication of the viruses, according to doctors, can stop growing liver damage and avoid the development of cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer in appropriately selected patients.
  • Prevention of Hepatitis

  • One of the most important ways to avoid catching hepatitis A and E is to maintain adequate hygiene. If you're visiting a developing country, stay away from:
    • Local water
    • Ice
    • Raw or undercooked shellfish and oysters
    • Raw fruit and vegetables
  • Hepatitis B, C, and D can get contracted through contaminated blood can be prevented by:
    • Not sharing needles for drugs
    • Razors are not shared
    • Not using another person's toothbrush
    • Avoiding contact with blood that has been spilled
    • Vaccines
  • Vaccination is a crucial part of preventing hepatitis. Hepatitis A and B vaccines are available to prevent the spread of the disease. Hepatitis C vaccines are currently being developed by experts.
  • Complications of Hepatitis

  • Chronic hepatitis B or C can lead to a variety of major health issues. People with chronic hepatitis B or C are at risk for the following complications because the infection affects the liver:
    • Chronic liver disease
    • Cirrhosis
    • Liver Cancer
  • Liver failure can develop when your liver stops functioning normally. The following are some of the side effects of liver failure:
    • Bleeding disorders
    • The buildup of fluid in the abdomen
    • Increased blood pressure in portal veins
    • Kidney failure
    • Hepatic encephalopathy
    • Hepatocellular carcinoma is a form of liver cancer
  • Alcohol should be avoided by people with chronic hepatitis B and C since it can hasten liver damage and failure. Supplements and drugs might also have an impact on liver function. Check with your doctor before starting any new medications if you have chronic hepatitis B or C.
  • Frequently Asked Questions:

    Hepatitis is most commonly caused by hepatitis viruses, although it can also be caused by infections, toxic substances (such as alcohol and some medicines), and autoimmune illnesses. Hepatitis viruses are classified into five types: A, B, C, D, and E.

    Hepatitis C can be a short-term sickness, but most people have chronic infection after an acute infection. If left untreated, chronic hepatitis C can be a lifetime infection. Hepatitis C is a dangerous infection that can lead to liver damage, cirrhosis (liver scarring), liver cancer, and even death.

    Hepatitis A and E viruses (HAV and HEV) are both spread through enteric, or gastrointestinal, or fecal pathways. 1 The fecal-oral pathway is another name for this. To be infected with these viruses, you must consume virus-infested feces.

    Hepatitis can be treated in any form, but only A and C are curable. Most patients with hepatitis A or B will recover on their own, with no long-term effects on their liver. People with hepatitis B can develop chronic liver disease, such as cirrhosis, liver failure, or liver cancer, in rare situations.

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